Dietary

Publication Title: 
BMJ case reports

Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment.

Author(s): 
Agrawal, Sanwar
Nathani, Shweta
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Dietetic Association

BACKGROUND: Although therapeutic diets are critical to diabetes management, their acceptability to patients is largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To quantify adherence and acceptability for two types of diets for diabetes. DESIGN: Controlled trial conducted between 2004 and 2006. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n=99) at a community-based research facility. Participants were randomly assigned to a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines or a low-fat, vegan diet for 74 weeks.

Author(s): 
Barnard, Neal D.
Gloede, Lise
Cohen, Joshua
Jenkins, David J. A.
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle
Green, Amber A.
Ferdowsian, Hope
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Dentistry

OBJECTIVES: India is unique in entire world due to variety of dietary habits in population. Many people of India follow totally vegetarian life style through their entire life time due to some religious and cultural reasons. Present study tried to analyze the role of different factors in the occurrence of dental caries including dietary habit. METHODS: Persons suffering with dental caries were examined for the type of dental caries in relation to different factors. Dental examination was performed and patients were asked a questionnaire and the data was recorded and analyzed.

Author(s): 
Khan, Abdul Arif
Jain, Sudhir K.
Shrivastav, Archana
Publication Title: 
Central European Journal of Public Health

The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment.

Author(s): 
Slavícek, Jaroslav
Kittnar, Otomar
Fraser, Gary E.
Medová, Eva
Konecná, Jana
Zizka, Robert
Dohnalová, Alena
Novák, Vladimir
Publication Title: 
Environmental Health Perspectives

BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States. Relatively little is known about potential risk factors, but a role for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to elucidate the risk of hypospadias associated with occupational exposure of the mother to endocrine-disruptor chemicals, use of folate supplementation during pregnancy, and vegetarianism.

Author(s): 
Ormond, Gillian
Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
Nelson, Paul
Toledano, Mireille B.
Iszatt, Nina
Geneletti, Sara
Elliott, Paul
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease.

Author(s): 
Craig, Winston J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

We summarize conclusions drawn from a panel discussion at the "Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition" about the roles of and emphasis on food, plant food, and vegetarianism in current and future US dietary guidelines. The most general recommendation of the panel was that future dietary guidelines, following the lead of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, should emphasize food-based recommendations and thinking to the full extent that evidence allows.

Author(s): 
Jacobs, David R.
Haddad, Ella H.
Lanou, Amy Joy
Messina, Mark J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Interest in the cardiovascular protective effects of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids has continued to evolve during the past 35 y since the original research describing the low cardiovascular event rate in Greenland Inuit was published by Dyerberg et al. Numerous in vitro experiments have shown that n-3 fatty acids may confer this benefit by several mechanisms: they are antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiarrhythmic.

Author(s): 
Mangat, Iqwal
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

A benefit-risk evaluation of the evidence for including dairy foods in the diet is presented. For many persons dairy products provide a substantial portion of essential nutrients, but especially calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Dietary supplements and fortified foods can be alternative sources of these nutrients, although other components of dairy foods such as amino acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid may be instrumental in the benefits associated with dairy product consumption for bone health and reduced risk of stroke, metabolic syndrome, and some cancers.

Author(s): 
Weaver, Connie M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

A number of studies have evaluated the health of vegetarians. Others have studied the health effects of foods that are preferred or avoided by vegetarians. The purpose of this review is to look critically at the evidence on the health effects of vegetarian diets and to seek possible explanations where results appear to conflict. There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, largely explained by low LDL cholesterol, probable lower rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower prevalence of obesity.

Author(s): 
Fraser, Gary E.

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