Systematic Reviews

Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with homeopathy. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books.

Author(s): 
Linde, K.
Hondras, M.
Vickers, A.
ter Riet, G.
Melchart, D.
Publication Title: 
Prescrire International

(1) Acupuncture has been assessed in hundreds of published comparative trials involving thousands of patients in a variety of situations. (2) Most of these trials are handicapped by their poor methodological quality. (3) Systematic reviews have found evidence of specific benefit in the treatment of nausea and vomiting, both postoperatively and during pregnancy. Unfortunately, the practical implications of these results are limited, notably because various methods were used to stimulate the relevant acupuncture points (needle insertion, finger pressure, electrical stimulation).

Publication Title: 
Chest

We found eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of miscellaneous interventions that were designed to facilitate the process of weaning from mechanical ventilation. The two RCTs of high-fat/low-carbohydrate enteral nutrition found favorable physiologic effects on CO2 production and respiratory quotient, rendering this type of nutrition potentially useful in patients with impaired ventilatory reserve; however, no conclusions can be made about the outcomes of the duration of ventilation and weaning success.

Author(s): 
Cook, D.
Meade, M.
Guyatt, G.
Butler, R.
Aldawood, A.
Epstein, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

We aimed to investigate: (1) whether patient and intervention characteristics, design-independent quality aspects, and response rates differ between randomized and non-randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic headache; (2) whether non-randomized studies provide useful additional information (regarding long-term effects, prognostic factors, adverse effects, and generalizability); (3) reasons for potential differences in response rates.

Author(s): 
Linde, Klaus
Scholz, Michael
Melchart, Dieter
Willich, Stefan N.
Publication Title: 
The Clinical Journal of Pain

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to determine how effective acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, acupuncture-like transcutaneous nerve stimulation, laser therapy, electrical nerve stimulation, and neuroreflexotherapy are in the management of chronic pain. METHODOLOGY: The literature search identified six systematic reviews of the literature and four randomized controlled trials to provide evidence for this review. RESULTS: The systematic reviews included different methodologies and heterogeneity of study groups, but studies were generally of poor methodology.

Author(s): 
Fargas-Babjak, A.
Publication Title: 
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To assess the status of managed care and insurance coverage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the integration of such services into managed care. DATA SOURCES: A literature review and information search were conducted to determine which new insurers had special policies for CAM from 1999 to 2000.

Author(s): 
Pelletier, Kenneth R.
Astin, John A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

This presentation provides an overview of studies that are of sound methodological quality and that contribute to the understanding of acupuncture. It is difficult to design an appropriate control group for acupuncture because acupuncture is an invasive, physical modality. No single control group can answer all of the research questions. Therefore, many types of control groups, each with advantages and disadvantages, have been used, depending on the specific questions being asked.

Author(s): 
Berman, B. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

Acupuncture, a component of the health care system of China that can be traced back at least 2500 years, describes a family of procedures involving stimulation of anatomical locations on the skin by a variety of techniques. In November 1997, the National Institutes of Health conducted a consensus conference during which a panel of experts convened to discuss the scientific evidence regarding acupuncture. The panel concluded that acupuncture is an effective treatment for several medical conditions and described biochemical and physiologic mechanisms that begin to explain these effects.

Author(s): 
Berman, B. M.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: More than a third of women experience back pain during pregnancy. The pain can interfere with work, daily activities and sleep. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to assess the effects of preventive interventions and treatments for pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (October 2001) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2001).

Author(s): 
Young, G.
Jewell, D.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Dysmenorrhoea is the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of the uterus. Medical therapy for dysmenorrhoea commonly consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the oral contraceptive pill both of which work by reducing myometrial (uterine muscle) activity. However, these treatments are accompanied by a number of side effects, making an effective non-pharmacological method of treating dysmenorrhoea of potential value. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment that has been shown to be effective for pain relief in a variety of conditions.

Author(s): 
Proctor, M. L.
Smith, C. A.
Farquhar, C. M.
Stones, R. W.

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