Vegetarianism

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: The association between vegetarian diets and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial because of conflicting findings from previous studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of vegetarian diets on BMD by using a meta-analytic approach. DESIGN: A systematic electronic literature search was conducted to identify all relevant articles on the association between vegetarian diet and BMD. Nine studies of 2749 subjects (1880 women and 869 men) were included in the analysis.

Author(s): 
Ho-Pham, Lan T.
Nguyen, Nguyen D.
Nguyen, Tuan V.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences

BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) still remains to be a poorly understood and less analyzed group of cardiac-muscle disorders when compared to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Also, the vast clinical heterogeneity among the patients has rendered the small and isolated kindred studies less informative on the genetics and epidemiology of DCM. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed at understanding the epidemiology and genetics of DCMs in the Indian context.

Author(s): 
Ushasree, B.
Shivani, V.
Venkateshwari, A.
Jain, R. K.
Narsimhan, C.
Nallari, Pratibha
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Previous morphological and isotopic studies indicate that Late Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) diet ranged from mostly vegetarian to omnivory or even carnivory. However, such analyses do not provide information on seasonal diets, and only provide an average record of diet.

Author(s): 
Peigné, Stéphane
Goillot, Cyrielle
Germonpré, Mietje
Blondel, Cécile
Bignon, Olivier
Merceron, Gildas
Publication Title: 
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

We described the body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians and compared the data with that of omnivores in South Korea. Vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns, who adhered to a vegetarian diet in accordance with Buddhist teachings. We compared these finding with a group of 31 omnivore Catholic nuns who shared a similar lifestyle but different dietary pattern than those of the Buddhist nuns. All subjects completed the estimated three-day dietary record. Body composition was determined by a segmental multi-frequency-bioelectrical impedance analysis method.

Author(s): 
Lee, Yujin
Krawinkel, Michael
Publication Title: 
Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic

Cholesterol gallstones are among the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western societies. Individuals with gallstones may experience various gastrointestinal symptoms and are also at risk of developing acute or chronic cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy is the most frequently recommended conventional treatment for symptomatic gallstones. Bile acids (ursodeoxycholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid) are also used in some cases to dissolve radiolucent stones, but these drugs can cause gastrointestinal side effects and there is a high rate of stone recurrence after treatment is discontinued.

Author(s): 
Gaby, Alan R.
Publication Title: 
Cases Journal

INTRODUCTION: The link between nutritional status and either optic or peripheral neuropathies is well established with tobacco, ethanol, deficiencies in thiamine, vitamin A, B12, B3 and B6 and protein-energy malnutrition all being causative. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 32-year-old Afro-Caribbean of Jamaican origin presenting with blurred vision and a painful burning sensation in his feet. The clinical features were consistent with optic and peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: The patient followed a strict vegan diet and consumed no animal products.

Author(s): 
Nightingale, Laura M.
Paviour, Dominic C.
Publication Title: 
Australian Family Physician

A vegetarian is a person who consumes a diet consisting mostly of plant based foods including fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and grains. Some vegetarians also consume eggs and dairy foods. Individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for a range of reasons, including animal rights and religion, but two common reasons are the health and environmental benefits of plant based eating.

Author(s): 
Marsh, Kate
Zeuschner, Carol
Saunders, Angela
Reid, Michelle
Publication Title: 
Patient Preference and Adherence

OBJECTIVES: To describe participants' adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases.

Author(s): 
Acharya, Sushama D.
Elci, Okan U.
Sereika, Susan M.
Music, Edvin
Styn, Mindi A.
Turk, Melanie Warziski
Burke, Lora E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Dietetic Association

Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States.

Author(s): 
Racette, Susan B.
Spearie, Catherine Anderson
Phillips, Katherine M.
Lin, Xiaobo
Ma, Lina
Ostlund, Richard E.
Publication Title: 
Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics

BACKGROUND: An elevated level of homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Deficiency of dietary factors like vitamin B(12), folate, and genetic variations can cause hyperhomocysteinemia. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in the Indian population is likely to be high because most Indians adhere to a vegetarian diet, deficient in vitamin B(12). In the BACKGROUND: deficiency, variations in genes involved in homocysteine metabolism might have a greater impact on homocysteine levels.

Author(s): 
Kumar, Jitender
Garg, Gaurav
Kumar, Arun
Sundaramoorthy, Elayanambi
Sanapala, Krishna Rao
Ghosh, Saurabh
Karthikeyan, Ganesan
Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy
Indian Genome Variation Consortium
Sengupta, Shantanu

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