This report presents strategies for ensuring full participation and achievement in the sciences by women and girls, calling upon all adults to support the interest and persistence of females in science, engineering, and technology. After two introductory special reports, "International Efforts through Beijing +5" and "Toward Equity in the European Union," there are six parts.
Commitment and creativity in science are not merely a function of an individual's competence or excellence, but are a product of the social environment as well. Acceptance and recognition from significant other people (one's peers and other professionals), and opportunities for stimulating and challenging interaction are essential for developing a strong occupational or professional identiy, and for creating the inner sense of role competence which can lead to greater commitment and productivity in professional work.
American society has prided itself on its concern for the fullest development of each individual's creative potential. As a nation, we have become sensitive to the social handicaps of race and class but have remained quite insensitive to those imposed because of sex. Those women who have entered the top professional fields have had to have extraordinary motivation, thick skins, exceptional ability, and some unusual pattern of socialization in order to reach their occupational destinations.
The number of women in science and engineering is growing, yet men continue to outnumber women, especially at the upper levels of these professions. In elementary, middle, and high school, girls and boys take math and science courses in roughly equal numbers, and about as many girls as boys leave high school prepared to pursue science and engineering majors in college. Yet fewer women than men pursue these majors. Among first-year college students, women are much less likely than men to say that they intend to major in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM).
A great deal of received wisdom in the area of the lack of ability of women in science is still based on assumption, belief, or prejudices operating at the level of superstition. The "Snark Syndrome," a term inspired by Lewis Carroll's famous nonsense poem. "The Hunting of the Snark" was coined by Eileen Byrne to describe these beliefs that have no credible base in sound empirical research. The application of the Snark Syndrome produces the Snark effect. Educators and policymakers have internalized assertions from hearing them repeated so many times.
Women are under?represented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors and careers in most industrialized countries around the world. This paper explores the broad array of explanations for the absence of women in STEM put forth in the literature of the last 30 years. It is argued that some proposed explanations are without merit and are in fact dangerous, while others do play a part in a complex interaction of factors. It is suggested that the very nature of science may contribute to the removal of women from the ‘pipeline’.
Examined the reasons for the loss of high ability women from science, mathematics, and engineering undergraduate majors. In seeking to explain why the vulnerability of women to leaving science majors greatly exceeds that of men, findings are examined from a 3-yr, ethnographic study of factors contributing to high undergraduate attrition rates among 460 men and women of different ethnicities on 7 campuses.
This chapter, however, explores a series of contradictions inherent in high- and late-medieval responses to womens facial disfigurement, as presented in three works of hagiography. Deriving almost entirely from texts recording the male gaze, it considers the troubled relationship between womens beauty and their spiritual health.