Most prostate cancer patients develop androgen-independent recurrent prostate tumors a few years after androgen ablation therapy. No therapy, however, has been shown to substantially extend survival in these patients. Previously, we reported that androgen suppresses the growth of androgen-independent LNCaP prostate tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, androgen receptor (AR)-rich androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R1 cells adapt to growth suppression by androgen and then their growth is androgen stimulated. Because maintaining androgen dependency of prostate tumor cells should prolong the usefulness of androgen ablation therapy, we determined if androgen-independent prostate tumors would revert to an androgen-stimulated phenotype in vivo upon androgen treatment. Growth of the LNCaP 104-R1 tumors was suppressed by androgen, but tumors then adapted to suppression by androgen and growth became androgen stimulated. Tumor AR and prostate-specific antigen mRNA and protein were initially high in 104-R1 tumors but decreased during adaptation. Subsequent removal of androgen decreased the serum prostate-specific antigen level further and stopped the growth of the adapted tumors. Because androgen caused growth suppression and then reversion of androgen-independent tumors to an androgen-stimulated phenotype and because the growth of androgen-stimulated tumors could be restrained by androgen ablation, these results suggest a novel therapy for AR-positive androgen-independent prostate cancer.