Many hormonal signals from peripheral tissues contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake. These regulators including leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, modulate the orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression in hypothalamic nuclei. The anti-aging effects of caloric restriction have been explained from an evolutional viewpoint of the adaptive response of the neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to maximize survival during periods of food shortage. In organisms, excess energy is stored in adipose tissues as a triglyceride preparation for such survival situations. Adipose tissue has recently been recognized as an endocrine organ, and leptin, as secreted by adipocyte, seems to be an especially important factor for the adaptive response to fasting and neuroendocrine alterations under caloric restriction. In this review, we discuss the potential involvement of neuroendocrine modulators in longevity and the anti-aging effects of caloric restriction.