Antiplasmodial activity of botanical extracts against Plasmodium falciparum

The absence of a vaccine and the rampant resistance to almost all antimalarial drugs have accentuated the urgent need for new antimalarial drugs and drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to discover effective plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Citrus sinensis (peel), Leucas aspera, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus acidus (leaf), Terminalia chebula (seed) were tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) strain of P. falciparum which was cultured following the candle-jar method. Antimalarial evaluations of daily replacement of culture medium containing CQ and different plant crude extracts were performed on 96-well plates at 37°C for 24 and 48 h. Parasitemia was determined microscopically on thin-film Giemsa-stained preparations. Plant extracts were tested for their cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on human laryngeal cancer cell line (HEp-2) and normal cell line (Vero). Out of the 25 extracts tested, six showed good (IC(50) 4.76-22.76 ?g/mL), 15 exhibited moderate (IC(50) 31.42-88.03 ?g/mL), while four displayed mild (IC(50)?>?100 ?g/mL) antiplasmodial activity. The leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of L. aspera; ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of P. acidus; and seed acetone extract of T. chebula had good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)?=?7.81, 22.76, 9.37, 14.65, 12.68, and 4.76 ?g/mL) with selectivity indices 5.43, 2.04, 4.88, 3.35, 3.42, and 9.97 for HEp-2 and >5.79, >2.20, >11.75, >3.41, >3.94, and >7.38 for Vero cells, respectively. These analyses have revealed for the first time that the components present in the solvent extracts of L. aspera, P. acidus, and T. chebula have antiplasmodial activity. The high antiplasmodial activity observed make these plants good candidates for isolation of anti-protozoal compounds which could serve as new lead structures for drug development.

Bagavan, Asokan
Rahuman, Abdul Abdul
Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal
Kaushik, Naveen Kumar
Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh
Sahal, Dinkar
Item Type: 
Journal Article
Publication Title: 
Parasitology Research
Journal Abbreviation: 
Parasitol. Res.
Publication Date: 
Publication Year: 
Library Catalog: 
PMID: 21079994

Turabian/Chicago Citation

Asokan Bagavan, Abdul Abdul Rahuman, Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Naveen Kumar Kaushik, Dinesh Mohanakrishnan and Dinkar Sahal. 2011-05. "Antiplasmodial activity of botanical extracts against Plasmodium falciparum." Parasitology Research 108: 5: 1099-1109. 10.1007/s00436-010-2151-0.

Wikipedia Citation

<ref> {{Cite journal | doi = 10.1007/s00436-010-2151-0 | issn = 1432-1955 | volume = 108 | pages = 1099-1109 | last = Bagavan | first = Asokan | coauthors = Rahuman, Abdul Abdul, Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal, Kaushik, Naveen Kumar, Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh, Sahal, Dinkar | title = Antiplasmodial activity of botanical extracts against Plasmodium falciparum | journal = Parasitology Research | date = 2011-05 | pmid = | pmc = }} </ref>