Constituents from Terminalia species increase PPAR? and PPAR? levels and stimulate glucose uptake without enhancing adipocyte differentiation
Language: 
English
Abstract: 

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruits of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. (Combretaceae) and T. chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are important components of triphala, a popular Ayurvedic formulation, for treating diabetes in Indian traditional medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the constituents of T. bellerica and T. chebula fruit extracts on PPAR? and PPAR? signaling/expression, cellular glucose uptake and adipogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PPAR? and PPAR? signaling and expression (luciferase assay and western blot) and the insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-NBDG were determined in HepG2 cells. The effects on adipogenesis were determined in 3T3-L1 cells by Oil red O staining and measurement of lipid content by AdipoRed reagent. RESULTS: Out of the 20 compounds, two ellagitannins, chebulagic acid (1) and corilagin (2), and three gallotannins, 2,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (3), 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (4), and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (5), showed the enhancement of PPAR? and/or PPAR? signaling. Two of the gallotannins (4 and 5) also increased PPAR? and PPAR? protein expression, while all three (3-5) enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into HepG2 cells. Compound 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (4) was the most potent in increasing cellular glucose uptake (9.92-fold increase at 50 ?M). In the test for adipogenesis, 3-5 did not enhance the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibited the adipogenic effect of rosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: Three gallotannins (3-5) from Terminalia fruits acting as enhancers of both PPAR? and PPAR? signaling increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake without inducing the adipogenesis, with 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (4) being the most effective in stimulating glucose uptake and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (5) being most effective in increasing PPAR protein expression.

Author(s): 
Yang, Min Hye
Vasquez, Yelkaira
Ali, Zulfiqar
Khan, Ikhlas A.
Khan, Shabana I.
Item Type: 
Journal Article
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Journal Abbreviation: 
J Ethnopharmacol
Publication Date: 
9/16/2013
Publication Year: 
2013
Pages: 
490-498
Volume: 
149
Issue: 
2
ISSN: 
1872-7573
DOI: 
10.1016/j.jep.2013.07.003
Library Catalog: 
PubMed
Extra: 
PMID: 23850833

Turabian/Chicago Citation

Min Hye Yang, Yelkaira Vasquez, Zulfiqar Ali, Ikhlas A. Khan and Shabana I. Khan. 9/16/2013. "Constituents from Terminalia species increase PPAR? and PPAR? levels and stimulate glucose uptake without enhancing adipocyte differentiation." Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149: 2: 490-498. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.07.003.

Wikipedia Citation

<ref> {{Cite journal | doi = 10.1016/j.jep.2013.07.003 | issn = 1872-7573 | volume = 149 | pages = 490-498 | last = Yang | first = Min Hye | coauthors = Vasquez, Yelkaira, Ali, Zulfiqar, Khan, Ikhlas A., Khan, Shabana I. | title = Constituents from Terminalia species increase PPAR? and PPAR? levels and stimulate glucose uptake without enhancing adipocyte differentiation | journal = Journal of Ethnopharmacology | date = 9/16/2013 | pmid = | pmc = }} </ref>