PURPOSE: Kidney stone is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) has been shown to be the main component of the majority of stones formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study evaluates the antilithiatic properties of Terminalia chebula commonly called as ?harad ? which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia chebula was investigated on nucleation and growth of the calcium oxalate crystals. The protective potency of the plant extract was also tested on oxalate induced cell injury of both NRK-52E and MDCK renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: The percentage inhibition of CaOx nucleation was found 95.84 % at 25µg/mL of Terminalia chebula aqueous extract which remained almost constant with the increasing concentration of the plant extract; however, plant extract inhibited CaOx crystal growth in a dose dependent pattern. When MDCK and NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 48 hours, the aqueous extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant extract, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that Terminalia chebula is a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis as it not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role.