Dogs have accompanied humankind for thousands of years. They share the same environment, and thus are exposed to the same environmental factors such as air pollution, tobacco smoke, and various chemicals. Recent development of veterinary care has led to a significant extension of dogs' lifespan and allowed the diagnosis and treatment of a growing number of different diseases in this species. Among all diseases in dogs, cancer is considered the main cause of mortality, with lymphoproliferative disorders accounting for up to 30% of all canine cancers. Some of them, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and lymphocytic leukemia, are very similar in the etiology, pathogenesis and response to treatment to the diseases occurring in humans. Due to anatomical and physiological similarities to humans, the dog is a useful model for the study of new therapeutic strategies for humans. Studies on the canine neoplasia are currently limited by the lack of well-characterized and widely available cell lines; thus, recently obtained canine NHL cell lines may become a valuable model for such studies. Investigation of their sensitivity to the antiproliferative effects of different factors should allow the creation of a database similar to the existing classification of human leukemias and lymphomas. This should enable quick and accurate diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment based on phenotypic analysis and histopathological examination of clinical samples. The cooperation between human and veterinary oncologists gives the opportunity to use the dog as a model for the study of certain types of cancers presenting a challenge for modern medicine.