BACKGROUND: Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. (Menispermaceae) is a plant found in Northeastern and Southeast of Brazil and hot water infusion of C. sympodialis root bark is largely used in the indigenous and folk medicine to treat several inflammatory disorders, including asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory allergic disease characterized by airway hyperreactivity (AHR), eosinophil tissue infiltration and lung remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of C. sympodialis and its isolated alkaloid warifteine on allergen triggered airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and lung remodeling in murine model of asthma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The oral pre-treatment with C. sympodialis or warifteine inhibited allergen-induced AHR to inhaled methacholine and IL-13 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In order to investigate the therapeutic potential of C. sympodialis and warifteine, animals were treated 1h after the last ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in sensitized animals. Similarly to the pre-treatment, post-treatment with warifteine was effective to inhibit significantly AHR to inhaled methacholine and to reduce IL-13 levels in the BAL. In addition, oral pre- or post-treatments with C. sympodialis or warifteine reduced OVA-induced eosinophil tissue infiltration, mucus production and subepithelial fibrosis to values similar to nonallergic controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the anti-allergic and immunoregulatory properties of C. sympodialis, acting mostly through the active compound warifteine, to inhibit the airway hyperreactivity and lung remodeling through a mechanism at least partially dependent of IL-13 and eosinophil inhibition. Therefore placing warifteine as an interesting therapeutic candidate in allergic inflammation and corroborating the folk medicine use of C. sympodialis as anti-allergic plant.