Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive paralysis due to motor neuron death. Several lines of published evidence suggested that inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling might protect neurons from degeneration. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we treated the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS with erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor clinically approved for oncology indications. Although erlotinib failed to extend ALS mouse survival it did provide a modest but significant delay in the onset of multiple behavioral measures of disease progression. However, given the lack of protection of motor neuron synapses and the lack of survival extension, the small benefits observed after erlotinib treatment appear purely symptomatic, with no modification of disease course.