BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are important signaling pathways constitutively activated during inflammation. We previously reported that high-fat diet (HFD) intake induces oxidative stress in the prostate through elevated expression of NADPH oxidase subunits causing NF-κB activation. We sought to determine whether Stat-3 is involved in the activation of NF-κB in the prostate as a result of HFD feeding, leading to inflammation. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were either fed with regular diet (RD) or HFD for 4 and 8 weeks. Plasma cytokine levels were determined by multiplex analysis. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of NF-κB, Stat-3, Akt, PDK1, PKCε, and their phosphorylated forms along with pathologic evaluation of the prostate. Immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were conducted to study the association between Stat-3 and NF-κB. RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice fed with HFD showed a significant increase in the plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17, and TNFα after 4 and 8 weeks of feeding, compared with RD controls. HFD feeding elevated the intraprostatic expression of IL-6 and caused activation of PKCε and Akt, the upstream kinase regulating Stat-3 and NF-κB. Nuclear extracts from the prostates of mice fed with HFD exhibited constitutively activated levels of Stat-3 and NF-κB/p65. Increased association between the activated forms of Stat-3 and NF-κB/p65 was observed in the nucleus as a result of HFD feeding, a finding that was accompanied by morphologic evidence of increased intraprostatic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HFD activates Stat-3 and NF-κB/p65 in the prostate, and their interaction is associated with increased inflammation in the prostate.