Evolutional theories of aging and caloric restriction (CR) in animals predict the presence of neuroendocrine signals to divert the limited energy resources from energy-costly physiologic processes such as reproduction to those essential for survival in response to food shortage. The diversion of energy and subsequent molecular mechanisms might extend the lifespan. A growing body of evidence indicates that leptin, a peptide hormone secreted from adipocytes, has a key role in neuroendocrine adaptation against life-threatening stress such as fasting. The present review discusses the potential role of leptin in the anti-aging action of CR. Although several alternative signaling pathways might also mediate the anti-aging action of CR, leptin signaling could be a substantial pathway in the CR action. Research on neuroendocrine mechanisms of CR is warranted, because such efforts might provide clues to the regulation of the aging process in humans.