Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly shown a close relationship between plasma cholesterol concentrations and vascular risk. We focused our attention on the phenotypic-biohumoral conditions capable of influencing longevity in relation to different age classes. We evaluated the lipid profile in an elderly institutionalized population of 80 subjects (20 males and 60 females divided into age classes) in the town of Catania. Our results revealed a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol concentrations as well as Apolipoprotein B100/Apolipoprotein A1, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratios, and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol, Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B100 and Lipoprotein (a) values. This changes are progressive with age. We believe that low total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, elevated HDL-cholesterol values, and low ratios protect subjects from ischemic and thrombotic events, thus favouring longevity. These changes are most evident and statistically significant in the most advanced decades of life, especially in centenarians, and may depend on diverse determinants, such as body composition, environmental factors, physical activity, diet and drugs.