Caloric restriction has been shown to increase lifespan in several organisms and to delay onset of age-related diseases. The transcriptional response to caloric restriction has been studied for mRNAs, while the microRNA signature following caloric restriction remains unexplored. Here, we characterize the microRNA expression in mouse breast tissue before and after caloric restriction, reporting several changes in the microRNA expression profile. In particular, miR-203 is found to be highly induced by caloric restriction, and we demonstrate that caveolin-1 as well as p63 are direct targets of miR-203 in vivo during caloric restriction. Using tissue culture models, we suggest that this regulation is important in both mouse and human. In conclusion, we show that the microRNA response induced by caloric restriction can regulate important factors in processes such as longevity and aging and is an integral and important component of the cellular response to caloric restriction.