INTRODUCTION: Nocturnal enuresis affects 15-20% of 5-year-old children, 5% of 10 year-old-children and 1-2% of people aged 15 years and over. Without treatment, 15% of affected children will become dry each year. Nocturnal enuresis is not diagnosed in children younger than 5 years, and treatment may be inappropriate for children younger than 7 years. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions for relief of symptoms? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to March 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). RESULTS: We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, anticholinergics (oxybutynin, tolterodine, hyoscyamine), desmopression, dry bed training, enuresis alarm, hypnotherapy, standard home alarm clock, tricyclics (imipramine, desipramine).