BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors play an important role in the predisposition, triggering and course of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Cognitive behavioral therapies are strongly recommended in the current guidelines on the management of FMS in Canada, Germany and Israel. AIMS: Review of techniques, aims and efficacy of psychotherapeutic procedures in FMS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Narrative review based on a selective search for systematic reviews on the efficacy of psychotherapeutic procedures in FMS. RESULTS: There is robust evidence for the short and long-term efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies on some key symptoms of FMS, e.g. pain, depression and disability. The quality and quantity of the evidence for the efficacy of other psychotherapeutic procedures (e.g. biofeedback, relaxation therapies, hypnosis/guided imagery and psychodynamic therapy) are insufficient. CONCLUSION: Cognitive behavioral therapies (e.g. acceptance and commitment therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and operant therapy) should play an important role in a graduated and individually tailored therapy of FMS patients.