Sirtuins are a family of seven proteins in humans (SIRT1-SIRT7) that are involved in multiple cellular processes relevant to dermatology. The role of sirtuins in other organ systems is established. However, the importance of these proteins in dermatology is less defined. Recently, sirtuins gained international attention because of their role as "longevity proteins" that may extend and enhance human life. Sirtuins function in the cell via histone deacetylase and/or adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase enzymatic activity that target histone and non-histone substrates, including transcription regulators, tumor suppressors, structural proteins, DNA repair proteins, cell signaling proteins, transport proteins, and enzymes. Sirtuins are involved in cellular pathways related to skin structure and function, including aging, ultraviolet-induced photoaging, inflammation, epigenetics, cancer, and a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle, DNA repair and proliferation. This review highlights sirtuin-related cellular pathways, therapeutics and pharmacological targets in atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatoses, collagen vascular disorders, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypertrophic and keloid scars, cutaneous infections, and non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer. Also discussed is the role of sirtuins in the following genodermatoses: ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden's syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, Rubenstein-Taybi, Werner syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The pathophysiology of these inherited diseases is not well understood, and sirtuin-related processes represent potential therapeutic targets for diseases lacking suitable alternative treatments. The goal of this review is to bring attention to the dermatology community, physicians, and scientists, the importance of sirtuins in dermatology and provide a foundation and impetus for future discussion, research and pharmacologic discovery.