Protopanaxadiol (PPD), an aglycon of ginseng saponins, has shown anticancer activity in earlier studies. Here, we have reported the semisynthesis of nine PPD derivatives with acetyl substitutions. Subsequently, the antiproliferative effects of these nine analogs on different human cancer cell lines have been investigated. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 showed more significant and more potent antiproliferative activity compared with PPD and other derivatives. A flow cytometric assay indicated that compounds 1, 3, and 5 arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 phase and significantly induced apoptosis of cancer cells.