Plant-derived medicines have been a part of our traditional health care system, and the antimicrobial properties of plant-derived compounds are well documented. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula (a medicinal plant) on salivary samples and its potential for use as an anticaries agent in the form of mouthwash. A concentrated aqueous extract was prepared from the fruit of T. chebula . A mouth rinse of 10% concentration was prepared by diluting the extract in sterile distilled water. The efficacy of the mouth rinse was assessed by testing on 50 salivary samples. Salivary samples were collected from subjects assessed to be at high risk for caries. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, and microbial activity were assessed before rinsing, immediately after, and 10 min, 30 min, and 1 h after rinsing. There was an increase in the pH and buffering capacity and decrease in microbial count. An aqueous extract of T. chebula used as a mouth rinse seems to be an effective anticaries agent.