BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to describe the use of ultrasound by Dutch physical therapists and to address the question of whether this use is what would be considered correct. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Physical therapists in the Dutch primary health care system gathered data on 17,201 patients, addressing reasons for referral, treatment goals (in terms of impairments and disabilities), and physical therapy interventions. Patients treated with ultrasound (n = 3,959) were compared with a reference group of patients who were not treated with ultrasound (n = 13,242). RESULTS: Physical therapists applied ultrasound for soft tissue injuries of recent onset, mainly aiming to reduce pain and swelling. Ultrasound was used in all phases of treatment and was not restricted to the first 3 weeks of treatment. Ultrasound was combined relatively infrequently with exercise and relatively frequently with massage. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Regarding the indications for referral and treatment goals chosen, the actual use of ultrasound corresponds to assumptions about expected use. The timing of its application and the combination with other forms of therapy do not correspond in all aspects to the assumptions made.