In vitro effects of artemisinin ether, cycloguanil hydrochloride (alone and in combination with sulfadiazine), quinine sulfate, mefloquine, primaquine phosphate, trifluoperazine hydrochloride, and verapamil on Toxoplasma gondii
Language: 
English
Abstract: 

The in vitro effect of the following antimicrobial agents on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were studied: artemisinin ether (arteether), cycloguanil hydrochloride (cycloguanil), mefloquine, primaquine phosphate, and quinine sulfate, as well as the calcium channel blocker verapamil and the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine hydrochloride. Arteether at > or = 0.5 micrograms/ml and cycloguanil at > or = 1.0 micrograms/ml inhibited T. gondii in vitro. Cycloguanil (2.5 micrograms/ml) combined with a noninhibitory concentration of sulfadiazine (25 micrograms/ml) inhibited T. gondii more than cycloguanil alone. Neither primaquine phosphate, mefloquine, nor quinine sulfate had an inhibitory effect on intracellular T. gondii. Verapamil and trifluoperazine hydrochloride were not inhibitor at lower physiologic concentrations, but higher physiologic concentrations were toxic to cell cultures in vitro and therefore our assay could not be used to assess their effects.

Author(s): 
Holfels, E.
McAuley, J.
Mack, D.
Milhous, W. K.
McLeod, R.
Item Type: 
Journal Article
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Journal Abbreviation: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
Publication Date: 
Jun-94
Publication Year: 
1994
Pages: 
1392-1396
Volume: 
38
Issue: 
6
ISSN: 
0066-4804
Library Catalog: 
PubMed
Extra: 
PMID: 8092843 PMCID: PMC188216

Turabian/Chicago Citation

E. Holfels, J. McAuley, D. Mack, W. K. Milhous and R. McLeod. Jun-94. "In vitro effects of artemisinin ether, cycloguanil hydrochloride (alone and in combination with sulfadiazine), quinine sulfate, mefloquine, primaquine phosphate, trifluoperazine hydrochloride, and verapamil on Toxoplasma gondii." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 38: 6: 1392-1396.

Wikipedia Citation

<ref> {{Cite journal | doi = | issn = 0066-4804 | volume = 38 | pages = 1392-1396 | last = Holfels | first = E. | coauthors = McAuley, J., Mack, D., Milhous, W. K., McLeod, R. | title = In vitro effects of artemisinin ether, cycloguanil hydrochloride (alone and in combination with sulfadiazine), quinine sulfate, mefloquine, primaquine phosphate, trifluoperazine hydrochloride, and verapamil on Toxoplasma gondii | journal = Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | date = Jun-94 | pmid = | pmc = }} </ref>