Experimentally imposed calorie restriction (CR) is shown to result in the most reproducible endpoint of lifespan extension in all animals models tested. In this presentation, the question of CR's effect on human longevity is reviewed by discussing data pertinent to the putative efficacy of CR on humans. Arguments are presented in support of this possibility based on CR's unique abilities to retard biological functional declines and to deter pathological processes, both of which are major targets of deleterious oxidative stress. To delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CR's efficacy on human longevity, this review elaborates on the modulation of CR on the inflammatory process, a common risk factor for many chronic diseases. Discussions also include evidence from human data on the effect of CR in the loss of body weight, known to suppress inflammatory cytokines, subsequently leading to the reduction of chronic diseases known to compromise the functional longevity of humans.