5-carboxylcytosine

Publication Title: 
Neuropharmacology

Over the last several years proteins involved in base excision repair (BER) have been implicated in active DNA demethylation. We review the literature supporting BER as a means of active DNA demethylation, and explain how the various components function and cooperate to remove the potentially most enduring means of epigenetic gene regulation. Recent evidence indicates that the same pathways implicated during periods of widespread DNA demethylation, such as the erasure of methyl marks in the paternal pronucleus soon after fertilization, are operational in post-mitotic neurons.

Author(s): 
Gavin, David P.
Chase, Kayla A.
Sharma, Rajiv P.
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

Epigenetic processes play a key role in the central nervous system and altered levels of 5-methylcytosine have been associated with a number of neurologic phenotypes, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, 3 additional cytosine modifications have been identified (5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine), which are thought to be intermediate steps in the demethylation of 5-methylcytosine to unmodified cytosine. Little is known about the frequency of these modifications in the human brain during health or disease.

Author(s): 
Condliffe, Daniel
Wong, Andrew
Troakes, Claire
Proitsi, Petroula
Patel, Yogen
Chouliaras, Leonidas
Fernandes, Cathy
Cooper, Jonathan
Lovestone, Simon
Schalkwyk, Leonard
Mill, Jonathan
Lunnon, Katie
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