Acyltransferases

Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition
Author(s): 
Emken, E. A.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Lipidology

Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidized fats and lipid oxidation products in the diet can contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present review summarizes studies that show that oxidized fat and lipid oxidation products are present in human foods; that these compounds are absorbed by the intestine and appear in the blood circulation; and that these ingested substances can have deleterious cardiovascular effects in both humans and experimental animals.

Author(s): 
Cohn, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical Society Transactions

MS, with or without pre-analysis peptide fractionation, can be used to decipher the residues on proteins where oxidative modifications caused by peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen or electrophilic lipids have occurred. Peroxynitrite nitrates tyrosine and tryptophan residues on the surface of actin. Singlet oxygen, formed by the interaction of UVA light with tryptophan, can oxidize neighbouring cysteine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues.

Author(s): 
Barnes, Stephen
Shonsey, Erin M.
Eliuk, Shannon M.
Stella, David
Barrett, Kerri
Srivastava, Om P.
Kim, Helen
Renfrow, Matthew B.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

Although the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism to eicosanoids has been well established in allergy and asthma, recent studies in neoplastic cells have revealed that AA remodeling through phospholipids impacts cell survival. This study tests the hypothesis that regulation of AA/phospholipid-remodeling enzymes, cytosolic phospholipase A(2) alpha(cPLA(2)-alpha, gIValphaPLA(2)) and CoA-independent transacylase (CoA-IT), provides a mechanism for altered eosinophil survival during allergic asthma.

Author(s): 
Seeds, Michael C.
Peachman, Kristina K.
Bowton, David L.
Sivertson, Kelly L.
Chilton, Floyd H.
Publication Title: 
Peptides

Ghrelin is the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide hormone that stimulates food intake and digestive functions. Ghrelin circulates as acylated and desacylated forms and recently the acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the de-acylating enzyme, thioesterase 1/lysophospholipase 1 have been identified adding new layers of complexity to the regulation of ghrelin.

Author(s): 
Stengel, Andreas
Wang, Lixin
Taché, Yvette
Publication Title: 
PloS One

OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin acylation by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) has recently been reported to be essential for the prevention of hypoglycemia during prolonged negative energy balance. Using a unique set of four different genetic loss-of-function models for the GOAT/ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) system, we thoroughly tested the hypothesis that lack-of-ghrelin activation or signaling would lead to hypoglycemia during caloric deprivation.

Author(s): 
Yi, Chun-Xia
Heppner, Kristy M.
Kirchner, Henriette
Tong, Jenny
Bielohuby, Maximillian
Gaylinn, Bruce D.
Müller, Timo D.
Bartley, Erin
Davis, Harold W.
Zhao, Yongmei
Joseph, Anupama
Kruthaupt, Traci
Ottaway, Nickki
Kabra, Dhiraj
Habegger, Kirk M.
Benoit, Stephen C.
Bidlingmaier, Martin
Thorner, Michael O.
Perez-Tilve, Diego
Tschöp, Matthias H.
Pfluger, Paul T.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and antiviral pharmacological properties. The major active secondary metabolites of this plant are chlorogenic acid (CGA) and luteoloside. While the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites are relatively well known, the genetic information available for this species, especially the biosynthetic pathways of its active ingredients, is limited.

Author(s): 
He, Liu
Xu, Xiaolan
Li, Ying
Li, Chunfang
Zhu, Yingjie
Yan, Haixia
Sun, Zhiying
Sun, Chao
Song, Jingyuan
Bi, Yu'an
Shen, Juan
Cheng, Ruiyang
Wang, Zhenzhong
Xiao, Wei
Chen, Shilin
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