The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a crucial intracellular regulator of the immune system. Recent studies have suggested that immunosuppression by TOR inhibition may be mediated by modulating differentiation of both effector and regulatory CD4 T cell subsets. However, it was paradoxically shown that inhibiting TOR signaling has immunostimulatory effects on the generation of long-lived memory CD8 T cells. Beneficial effects of TOR inhibition have also been observed with dendritic cells and hematopoietic stem cells.
The purpose of immunology is simple. Cure or prevent disease. M1/M2 is useful because it is simple. M1/M2 describes the two major and opposing activities of macrophages. M1 activity inhibits cell proliferation and causes tissue damage while M2 activity promotes cell proliferation and tissue repair. Remarkably, the molecules primarily responsible for these "Fight" (NO) or "Fix" (Ornithine) activities both arise from arginine, and via enzymatic pathways (iNOS and arginase) that down regulate each other.
B cells are critical players in the orchestration of properly regulated immune responses, normally providing protective immunity without autoimmunity. Balance in the B cell compartment is achieved through the finely regulated participation of multiple B cell populations with different antibody-dependent and independent functions. Both types of functions allow B cells to modulate other components of the innate and adaptive immune system. Autoantibody-independent B cell functions include antigen presentation, T cell activation and polarization, and dendritic cell modulation.
The Black Swan Theory was described by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book "The Black Swan". This theory refers to "high-impact, hard-to-predict, and rare events beyond the realm of normal expectations". According to Taleb's criteria, a Black Swan Event is a surprise, it has a major impact and after the fact, the event is rationalized by hindsight, as if it had been expected. For most of human history centenarians were a rare and unpredictable phenomenon.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance, a long parasite clearance half-life in response to artemisinin, has been described in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. Few baseline half-lives have been reported from Africa, where artemisinins were recently introduced. METHODS: We treated P. falciparum malaria in 215 Malian children aged 0.5-15 years with artesunate (0, 24, 48 hours) and amodiaquine (72, 96, 120 hours).
BACKGROUND: The impact of the age of first Plasmodium falciparum infection on the rate of acquisition of immunity to malaria and on the immune correlates of protection has proven difficult to elucidate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using monthly chemoprophylaxis with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate was conducted to modify the age of first P. falciparum erythrocytic exposure in infancy and assess antibodies and malaria risk over two years.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of specific Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) activities (yoga, sitting and informal meditation, body scan) on immune function, circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations, and positive affect among older adults. DESIGN: The study design comprised longitudinal analyses of data from subjects in an 8-week MBSR program. SETTING: The study was conducted at a University-affiliated health center. SUBJECTS: This study involved 100 community-dwelling older adults.
To model inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed infection with Helicobacter hepaticus 3B1 (ATCC 51449) and a potential probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC PTA-6475) in gnotobiotic B6.129P2-IL-10(tm1Cgn) (IL-10(-/-) ) mice. No typhlocolitis developed in germ-free controls (n=21) or in L. reuteri (n=8) or H. hepaticus (n=18) mono-associated mice for 20 weeks post-infection. As positive controls, three specific pathogen-free IL-10(-/-) mice dosed with H. hepaticus developed severe typhlocolitis within 11 weeks. Because L.
OBJECTIVE: The myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors with both Mtg8(-/-) and Mtgr1(-/-) mice showing developmental and/or differentiation defects in the intestine. We sought to determine the role of MTG16 in intestinal integrity. METHODS: Baseline and stress induced colonic phenotypes were examined in Mtg16(-/-) mice. To unmask phenotypes, we treated Mtg16(-/-) mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) or infected them with Citrobacter rodentium and the colons were examined for ulceration and for changes in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation.
Even though osteoarthritis (OA) is mainly considered as a degradative condition of the articular cartilage, there is increasing body of data demonstrating the involvement of all branches of the immune system. Genetic, metabolic or mechanical factors cause an initial injury to the cartilage resulting in release of several cartilage specific auto-antigens, which trigger the activation of immune response.