C57BL/6J mice carrying the Min allele of Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) develop numerous adenomas along the entire length of the intestine and consequently die at an early age. This short lifespan would prevent the accumulation of somatic genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations necessary for tumor progression. To overcome this limitation, we generated F(1) Apc(Min/+) hybrids by crossing C57BR/cdcJ and SWR/J females to C57BL/6J Apc(Min/+) males. These hybrids developed few intestinal tumors and often lived longer than 1 year.
Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE) against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(min/+) mice. Female APC(min/+) mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt) mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51%) and distal (49%) portions compared with the proximal one.