Adenosine Monophosphate

Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

A common thread among conserved life span regulators lies within intertwined roles in metabolism and energy homeostasis. We show that heterozygous mutations of AMP biosynthetic enzymes extend Drosophila life span. The life span benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended life span, while AMPK RNAi reduced life span.

Author(s): 
Stenesen, Drew
Suh, Jae Myoung
Seo, Jin
Yu, Kweon
Lee, Kyu-Sun
Kim, Jong-Seok
Min, Kyung-Jin
Graff, Jonathan M.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Berberine, a botanical alkaloid used to control blood glucose in type 2 diabetes in China, has recently been reported to activate AMPK. However, it is not clear how AMPK is activated by berberine. In this study, activity and action mechanism of berberine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. In dietary obese rats, berberine increased insulin sensitivity after 5-wk administration. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were decreased by 46 and 48%, respectively, in the rats.

Author(s): 
Yin, Jun
Gao, Zhanguo
Liu, Dong
Liu, Zhijun
Ye, Jianping
Publication Title: 
Journal of Leukocyte Biology

Increasing evidence suggests a tight coupling of metabolic and immune systems. This cross-talk mediated by neuroendocrine peptides as well as numerous cytokines and chemokines is believed to be responsible for integrating energy balance to immune function. These neuroendocrine-immune interactions are heightened during the state of chronic positive energy balance, as seen during obesity, and negative energy balance caused by caloric restriction (CR).

Author(s): 
Dixit, Vishwa Deep
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

We examined in HepG2 cells whether glucose-induced changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity could be mediated by SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent histone/protein deacetylase that has been linked to the increase in longevity caused by caloric restriction. Incubation with 25 vs. 5mM glucose for 6h concurrently diminished the phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr 172) and ACC (Ser 79), increased lactate release, and decreased the abundance and activity of SIRT1. In contrast, incubation with pyruvate (0.1 and 1mM) for 2h increased AMPK phosphorylation and SIRT1 abundance and activity.

Author(s): 
Suchankova, Gabriela
Nelson, Lauren E.
Gerhart-Hines, Zachary
Kelly, Meghan
Gauthier, Marie-Soleil
Saha, Asish K.
Ido, Yasuo
Puigserver, Pere
Ruderman, Neil B.
Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

A common thread among conserved life span regulators lies within intertwined roles in metabolism and energy homeostasis. We show that heterozygous mutations of AMP biosynthetic enzymes extend Drosophila life span. The life span benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended life span, while AMPK RNAi reduced life span.

Author(s): 
Stenesen, Drew
Suh, Jae Myoung
Seo, Jin
Yu, Kweon
Lee, Kyu-Sun
Kim, Jong-Seok
Min, Kyung-Jin
Graff, Jonathan M.
Publication Title: 
Trends in Molecular Medicine

Adenosine receptor agonists have potent antinociceptive effects in diverse preclinical models of chronic pain. By contrast, the efficacy of adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists in treating pain in humans is unclear. Two ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive neurons were recently identified. When injected spinally, these enzymes have long-lasting adenosine A(1) receptor-dependent antinociceptive effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models.

Author(s): 
Zylka, Mark J.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Pain

Acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat pain, although its efficacy and duration of action is limited. Acupuncture also has brief (1-2 h) antinociceptive effects in mice and these effects are dependent on localized adenosine A₁ receptor (A₁R) activation. Intriguingly, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is basally elevated near acupuncture points. This finding suggested that it might be possible to inhibit nociception for a longer period of time by injecting prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP) into acupuncture points.

Author(s): 
Hurt, Julie K.
Zylka, Mark J.
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