In anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorders and phobias, classical conditioning pairs natural (unconditioned) fear-eliciting stimuli with contextual or discrete cues resulting in enduring fear responses to multiple stimuli. Extinction is an active learning process that results in a reduction of conditioned fear responses after conditioned stimuli are no longer paired with unconditioned stimuli. Fear extinction often produces incomplete effects and this highlights the relative permanence of bonds between conditioned stimuli and conditioned fear responses.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains an incompletely understood, common syndrome with significant unmet medical needs. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel therapies aimed at normalizing bowel habit alterations and abdominal discomfort, even though some of the most effective treatments are currently only available for patients under a restricted access program from the FDA. Preclinical evidence supports the potential usefulness of several compounds in development for the treatment of chronic abdominal pain.
Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid found in many traditional Chinese herbal preparations and has a unique pharmacological profile that includes dopamine receptor antagonism. Previously we demonstrated that l-THP attenuates fixed-ratio (FR) cocaine self-administration (SA) and cocaine-induced reinstatement in rats at doses that do not alter food-reinforced responding. This study examined the effects of l-THP on cocaine and food SA under progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement and the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of nigrostriatal neurons and depletion of dopamine. This pathological feature leads to alterations to basal ganglia circuitry and subsequent motor disability. Pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy with medications such as levodopa ameliorates the symptoms of PD but can lead to motor complications known as drug-induced dyskinesias.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Rectal distension (RD) is known to induce upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of RD on gastric slow waves (GSW) and motor activity and furthermore to investigate the effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) on GSW and motor activity. Eight female hound dogs chronically implanted with gastric serosal electrodes and a gastric fistula were studied in six separate sessions. Antral motility, GSW, heart rate variability, and rectal pressure were evaluated for the above purposes.