IMPORTANCE: Family studies of centenarians and long-lived persons have found substantial familial aggregation of survival to extreme ages; however, the extent to which such familial longevity is characterized by cognitively intact survival is not established. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether families with exceptional longevity are protected against cognitive impairment consistent with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Multisite study in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Denmark.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
People may reach the upper limits of the human life span at least partly because they have maintained more appropriate immune function, avoiding changes to immunity termed "immunosenescence." Exceptionally long-lived people may be enriched for genes that contribute to their longevity, some of which may bear on immune function. Centenarian offspring would be expected to inherit some of these, which might be reflected in their resistance to immunosenescence, and contribute to their potential longevity.
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
BACKGROUND: Low levels of 25(OH) vitamin D are associated with various age-related diseases and mortality, but causality has not been determined. We investigated vitamin D levels in the offspring of nonagenarians who had at least one nonagenarian sibling; these offspring have a lower prevalence of age-related diseases and a higher propensity to reach old age compared with their partners.
OBJECTIVE: Differential effects of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been observed in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors in both glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. The authors examined the relative influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on DNA methylation of the exon 1F promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-1F) gene (NR3C1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its relationship to glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in Holocaust offspring.
This article presents a study in which Picot's caregiver rewards scale (PCRS), originally developed in English, was cross-culturally validated with 137 Chinese adult children family caregivers in the United States using confirmatory factor analysis. A one-factor structure of the 21-item revised Chinese PCRS was supported as indicated by goodness-of-fit index = .94, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = .93, standardized root mean square residual = .09, and chi-square to df ratio = 2.7. Chi-square for this model was (chi(2) [189, n = 137] = 514, p < .05). The standardized alpha was .90.
This study examined the link between parental divorce and marital conflict and young adult romantic relationships, and it tested whether offspring efficacy beliefs and conflict mediate this association. Young adults (N=358) provided data at three time points each separated by 7-week intervals.
A continuing need for care for elderly, combined with looser family structures prompt the question what filial obligations are. Do adult children of elderly have a duty to care? Several theories of filial obligation are reviewed. The reciprocity argument is not sensitive to the parent-child relationship after childhood. A theory of friendship does not offer a correct parallel for the relationship between adult child and elderly parent. Arguments based on need or vulnerability run the risk of being unjust to those on whom a needs-based claim is laid.
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
This study explored why adult offspring of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) sought genetic susceptibility testing for AD. Participants (N = 60) were a subset of subjects from the first randomized controlled clinical trial to offer such testing. Qualitative analysis revealed two central constructs: altruism and learning. Planning for the future, hoping to prevent AD, and need to know were concepts that explained the value of learning.
When adult children are financially responsible for their parents, they can take considerable interest in the amount of their parents' long-term care (LTC) insurance. In this paper, we look at the optimal levels of LTC insurance and of informal care, and at the link between these two decisions when the child, who provides informal care, is also the decision-maker with regard to LTC insurance. Interestingly, results differ depending on the degree of both parental and child altruism and indicate either complementarity or substitutability between insurance and informal care.
This work sets out to analyze the motivations adult children may have to provide informal care, considering the monetary transfers they receive from their parents. Traditional motivations, such as altruism and exchange, are matched against more recent social bond theories. Our findings indicate that informal caregivers receive less frequent and less generous transfers than non-caregivers; that is, caregivers are more prone to suppress their self-interested motivations in order to prioritize the well being of another person.