Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica / Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish Histochemical and Cytochemical Society
The insulin-like growth factor-2 (Igf2)-H19 locus encodes important paternally imprinted genes that govern normal embryonic development. While Igf-2 encodes IGF2, which is an autocrine/paracrine mitogen,† transcription of H19 gives rise to non-coding mRNA that is a precursor of several microRNAs (miRNAs) that negatively affect cell proliferation.
Abnormal splicing of LMNA gene or aberrant processing of prelamin A results in progeroid syndrome. Here we show that lamin A interacts with and activates SIRT1. SIRT1 exhibits reduced association with nuclear matrix (NM) and decreased deacetylase activity in the presence of progerin or prelamin A,†leading to rapid depletion of adult stem cells (ASCs) in Zmpste24(-/-) mice. Resveratrol enhances the binding between SIRT1 and A-type lamins to increases its deacetylase activity.
Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. The aetiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance.
The Editorial Board of Aging reviews research papers published in 2009, which they believe have or will have significant impact on aging research. Among many others, the topics include genes that accelerate aging or in contrast promote longevity in model organisms, DNA damage responses and telomeres, molecular mechanisms of life span extension by calorie restriction and pharmacological interventions into aging.
We have previously demonstrated that hypoxia stimulates adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise mechanism involved in the ROS generation by ASCs is not well understood. We sought to investigate in this work: (1) which subtype of NADPH oxidase (Nox) is primarily expressed in ASCs; (2) where Nox4 is localized in ASCs; and (3) whether silencing of Nox4 attenuates hypoxia-enhanced function of ASC.