Advance Directives

Publication Title: 
Christian Bioethics

This article discusses the unexpectedly firm stance professed by John Paul II on the provision of artificial nutrition and hydration to patients who are in a persistent vegetative state, and it implications on previously held standards of judging medical treatments. The traditional ordinary/extraordinary care distinction is assessed in light of complexities of the recent allocution as well as its impact on Catholic individuals and in Catholic health care facilities.

Author(s): 
Shannon, Thomas A.
Publication Title: 
Christian Bioethics

This essay reviews the Roman Catholic moral tradition surrounding treatments at the end of life together with the challenges presented to that tradition by the Texas Advance Directives Act. The impact on Catholic health care facilities and physicians, and the way in which the moral tradition should be applied under this statute, particularly with reference to the provision dealing with conflicts over end-of-life treatments, will be critically assessed.

Author(s): 
Zientek, David M.
Publication Title: 
Recenti Progressi in Medicina

Bioethics was born in an environment of rules that have traditionally governed relationships between health care providers and patients, as an innovation based on two strong points: the ability to transcend the paternalism of doctors and the acceptance of a plurality of ethics that characterize our societies. The new relationships that were born from bioethics require recognition and respect for the autonomy of the individual, even when they are sick.

Author(s): 
Spinsanti, Sandro
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care

A cross-sectional survey was administered to family members of patients who died at 1 of the 5 Catholic institutions comprising Mercy Health Partners, a health care system in Ohio, to determine their opinions about patient and family participation in decisions about end-of-life care. Among 165 respondents, 118 (86%) of 138 agreed that the family was encouraged to join in decisions and 133 (91%) of 146 that their family member's health care choices were followed.

Author(s): 
Bernal, Ellen W.
Marco, Catherine A.
Parkins, Sue
Buderer, Nancy
Thum, Sister Dorothy
Publication Title: 
HEC forum: an interdisciplinary journal on hospitals' ethical and legal issues

Roman Catholics have a long tradition of evaluating medical treatment at the end of life to determine if proposed interventions are proportionate and morally obligatory or disproportionate and morally optional. There has been significant debate within the Catholic community about whether artificially delivered nutrition and hydration can be appreciated as a medical intervention that may be optional in some situations, or if it should be treated as essentially obligatory in all circumstances.

Author(s): 
Zientek, David M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy

This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a "best judgment" model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the "substituted judgment" model and the "best interests" model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence.

Author(s): 
Stonestreet, Erica Lucast
Publication Title: 
Clinics in Geriatric Medicine

The mortality rate of elderly persons with heart failure is high despite the introduction of several effective therapeutic interventions during the past decade. The management of end of life, often associated with distressing symptoms and multiple hospitalizations, is a significant clinical problem. Skillful and effective management requires expert knowledge of the heart failure syndrome, but the critical dimension of care relates to detailed knowledge about a patient's comorbidities, extent of debility, values, and desires.

Author(s): 
Friesinger GC 2cnd, null
Butler, J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care

This study analyzes data from a national survey to estimate the proportion of physicians who currently object to physician-assisted suicide (PAS), terminal sedation (TS), and withdrawal of artificial life support (WLS), and to examine associations between such objections and physician ethnicity, religious characteristics, and experience caring for dying patients. Overall, 69% of the US physicians object to PAS, 18% to TS, and 5% to WLS.

Author(s): 
Curlin, Farr A.
Nwodim, Chinyere
Vance, Jennifer L.
Chin, Marshall H.
Lantos, John D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

CONTEXT: Prior studies suggest that terminally ill patients who use religious coping are less likely to have advance directives and more likely to opt for heroic end-of-life measures. Yet, no study to date has examined whether end-of-life practices are associated with measures of religiosity and spirituality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between general measures of patient religiosity and spirituality and patients' preferences for care at the end of life.

Author(s): 
Karches, Kyle E.
Chung, Grace S.
Arora, Vineet
Meltzer, David O.
Curlin, Farr A.
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