BACKGROUND: There has been renewal of interest in the use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the frequency of exacerbations and improve quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not regular treatment of COPD patients with prophylactic antibiotics reduces exacerbations or affects quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was August 2013.
Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society
A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance.
With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine how different levels of yoga involvement are related to different parameters of mental health and illness. DESIGN AND SETTING: A total sample of 455 participants (410 females) were investigated by means of an internet survey. 362 yoga practitioners (327 females) rated their degree of yoga involvement on the Yoga Immersion Scale. A control group was comprised of 93 gymnastics practitioners (83 females).
CONTEXT: The cultivation of mindfulness and acceptance has been theoretically and empirically associated with psychological ancillary well-being and has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of various disorders. Hence, mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments (MABTs) have recently been explored for the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This review aims to evaluate the benefits of MABTs for SAD. METHODS: Systematic review of studies investigating an MABT for individuals with SAD, using PsycInfo, Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.
PURPOSE: Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people worldwide. Meta-analyses of MBIs have become popular, but little is known about their efficacy in primary care. Our aim was to investigate the application and efficacy of MBIs that address primary care patients.
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse/recurrence. Maintenance antidepressant medication (m-ADM) for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to m-ADM. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with usual care but has not yet been compared with m-ADM in a definitive trial.
BACKGROUND: Upper limb repetitive strain injury is a common problem in western countries, causing human suffering and huge economical losses. Patients with prolonged pain associated with repetitive tasks in the work place can face both psychological and physical difficulties. Different treatment programmes, physical, psychological, behavioural, social and occupational treatments have been developed and used to help these patients.
BACKGROUND: Upper limb repetitive strain injury is a common problem in western countries, causing human suffering and huge economical losses. Patients with prolonged pain associated with repetitive tasks in the work place can face both psychological and physical difficulties. Different treatment programmes, physical, psychological, behavioural , social and occupational treatments have been developed and used to help these patients.
OBJECTIVES: A large body of research has demonstrated that patient factors are strong predictors of recovery from surgery. Mind-body therapies are increasingly targeted at pre-operative psychological factors. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative mind-body based interventions on post-operative outcome measures amongst elective surgical patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature was conducted using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO.