Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

Publication Title: 
PLoS genetics

We have taken an engineering approach to extending the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Aging stands out as a complex trait, because events that occur in old animals are not under strong natural selection. As a result, lifespan can be lengthened rationally using bioengineering to modulate gene expression or to add exogenous components. Here, we engineered longer lifespan by expressing genes from zebrafish encoding molecular functions not normally present in worms. Additionally, we extended lifespan by increasing the activity of four endogenous worm aging pathways.

Sagi, Dror
Kim, Stuart K.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The increased vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD) seen in individuals with childhood adversity (CA) may result in part from CA-induced epigenetic changes. To examine CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients, we examined peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 candidate genes in 279 African Americans [AAs; 88 with CA (70.5% with AD) and 191 without CA (38.2% with AD)] and 239 European Americans [EAs; 61 with CA (86.9% with AD) and 178 without CA (46.6% with AD)] using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array assays.

Zhang, Huiping
Wang, Fan
Kranzler, Henry R.
Zhao, Hongyu
Gelernter, Joel
Publication Title: 
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence is a complex disease caused by a confluence of environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence. METHODS: To determine if alterations in gene-specific methylation were associated with alcohol dependence, a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from alcohol-dependent patients and siblings without alcohol dependence as controls.

Zhao, Rongrong
Zhang, Ruiling
Li, Wenqiang
Liao, Yanhui
Tang, Jinsong
Miao, Qin
Hao, Wei
Publication Title: 
European Addiction Research

Acetaldehyde, the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol known to provoke aversive symptoms of alcohol consumption, is predominantly eliminated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Reduced ALDH2 activity correlates with low alcohol tolerance and low risk for alcohol dependence. The ALDH2 promoter polymorphism rs886205 (A>G) is associated with decreased promoter activity, but a molecular mechanism and allele-dependent ALDH2 protein expression has not been described yet.

Haschemi Nassab, Mani
Rhein, Mathias
Hagemeier, Lars
Kaeser, Marius
Muschler, Marc
Glahn, Alexander
Pich, Andreas
Heberlein, Annemarie
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan
Frieling, Helge
Hillemacher, Thomas
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Diethyl maleate (DEM, 600 mg kg-1 i.p.) significantly potentiated hexobarbitone hypnosis and lowered plasma hexobarbitone level on awakening. Sleeping time following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of phenobarbitone was also prolonged by DEM treatment. When administered to DEM-treated rats, L-tryptophan (50 mg kg-1 i.p.) significantly potentiated hexobarbitone hypnosis, although alone it had no effect in control rats.

Minegishi, A.
Fukumori, R.
Satoh, T.
Kitagawa, H.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Thapsia laciniata Rouy (Apiaceae) produces irregular and regular sesquiterpenoids with thapsane and guaiene carbon skeletons, as found in other Apiaceae species. A transcriptomic analysis utilizing Illumina next-generation sequencing enabled the identification of novel genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids in Thapsia. From 66.78 million HQ paired-end reads obtained from T. laciniata roots, 64.58 million were assembled into 76,565 contigs (N50: 1261 bp). Seventeen contigs were annotated as terpene synthases and five of these were predicted to be sesquiterpene synthases.

Drew, Damian Paul
Dueholm, Bjørn
Weitzel, Corinna
Zhang, Ye
Sensen, Christoph W.
Simonsen, Henrik Toft
Publication Title: 

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, few studies have been conducted to date regarding dietary selenium and the potential gene-nutrient interactions with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different pathways on the risk of esophageal cancer.

Cai, Lin
You, Nai-Chieh Yuko
Lu, Hua
Mu, Li-Na
Lu, Qing-Yi
Yu, Shun-Zhang
Le, Anh D.
Marshall, James
Heber, David
Zhang, Zuo-Feng
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