Seventy five medicinal plants of the traditional Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of Sri Lanka have been screened chemically for alkaloids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Of these, Crotolaria juncea L. was found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids with biological effects consistent with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. Feeding trials in rats with three plants lacking pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Ait. F. and Terminalia chebula Retz.
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is well-recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen, however, due to their intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics, treatment options are limited. Synergistic effects between antibiotics and medicinal plants, particularly their active components, have intensively been studied as alternative approaches. METHODS: Fifty-one ethanol extracts obtained from 44 different selected medicinal plant species were tested for resistance modifying agents (RMAs) of novobiocin against A. baumannii using growth inhibition assay.
The nightshades (solanaceae) were used as intoxicants since the ancient civilizations and are still in use today. Their alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine, were the major active substances of the ointments of witches, of medieval "anaesthetics", and of modern poisons for murder. In a medium dose-range the predominant symptoms are hallucinations and illusions. This explains the use of nightshades in fortune-telling and religious rituals. In higher doses the alkaloids produce coma and apnea. Scopolamine enjoyed a particular popularity as a poison for murder.
Piperine (1-peperoyl piperidine), a major alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum Linn, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time in dose dependant manner, with peak effect at 30 min. Blood and brain pentobarbitone levels were higher in piperine treated animals. Piperine treatment in rats, treated chronically with phenobarbitone, significantly potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time, as compared to the controls. There was no alteration in barbital sodium sleeping time.
This is the first study of hypnotic activity of tetrandrine (a major component of Stephania tetrandrae) in mice by using synergism with pentobarbital as an index for the hypnotic effect. The results showed that tetrandrine potentiated pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hypnosis significantly by reducing sleep latency and increasing sleeping time in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was potentiated by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP).
AIM: To compare the effects of matrine, artemisinin, and tetrandrine on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. METHODS: A single ventricular myocyte was loaded with Fluo 3-acetoxymethyl (Fluo 3-AM). [Ca2+]i was recorded by laser scanning confocal microscope and represented by fluorescence intensity (FI). RESULTS: 1) KCl 60 mmol . L-1 elevated the FI from 299 +/ -19 to 1389 +/- 325 (P < 0.01) in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ 1.8 mmol . L-1. 2) Both matrine and artemisinin at the concentration of 100 micromol .
Hepatitis B induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health problem worldwide. Although several antiviral drugs have been approved for hepatitis B, they cause significant dose-dependent side-effects (interferon-alpha) and drug resistance (lamivudine, etc.). Safe and potent new anti-HBV drugs are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an established segment of the health care system in China and widely used for hepatitis B in China and many parts of the world.
Chemical characterization and acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Trikatu, a generic herbal formulation of Indian system of medicine, was carried out in Charles Foster (CF) rats for safety profiling.
In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years.