In vitro, the heme cofactor of human iron(II) hemoglobin was efficiently and quickly alkylated at meso positions by the peroxide-based antimalarial drug artemisinin, leading to heme-artemisinin-derived covalent adducts. This reaction occurred in the absence of any added protease or in the presence of an excess of an extra non-heme protein, or even when artemisinin was added to hemolysed human blood.
Elucidation of the principal targets of the action of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is an ongoing pursuit that is important for understanding the action of this drug and for the development of more potent analogues. We have examined the chemical reaction of Hb with artemisinin. The protein-bound haem in Hb has been found to react with artemisinin much faster than is the case with free haem.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Heme alkylation by the antimalarial drug artemisinin is reported in vivo, within infected mice that have been treated at pharmacologically relevant doses. Adducts resulting from the alkylation of heme by the drug were characterized in the spleen of treated mice, and their glucuroconjugated derivatives were present in the urine. Because these heme-artemisinin adducts were not observed in noninfected mice, this report confirms that the alkylating activity of this antimalarial drug is related to the presence of the parasite in infected animals.
Trioxaquines, potential antimalarial agents, and heme-artemisinin adducts, resulting from the alkylation of heme by artemisinin, were evaluated as inhibitors of beta-hematin formation in 10 M acetate medium at pH 5.
The reaction of spiro- and dispiro-1,2,4-trioxolane antimalarials with heme has been investigated to provide further insight into the mechanism of action for this important class of antimalarials. A series of trioxolanes with various antimalarial potencies was found to be unreactive in the presence of Fe(III) hemin, but all were rapidly degraded by reduced Fe(II) heme. The major reaction product from the heme-mediated degradation of biologically active trioxolanes was an alkylated heme adduct resulting from addition of a radical intermediate.
Evidence of artemisinin (ART) resistance in all of the Greater Mekong Region is currently of major concern. Understanding of the mechanisms of resistance developed by Plasmodium against artemisinin and its derivatives is urgently needed. We here demonstrated that ART was able to alkylate heme in mice infected by the ART-susceptible strain of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, Y-control. After long-term drug pressure, the parasite strain (Y-ART3) was 5-fold less susceptible to ART than Y-control. In the blood of mice infected by Y-ART3, no heme-artemisinin adducts could be detected.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Under basal conditions, the interaction of the cytosolic protein Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) with the transcription factor nuclear factor-E(2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) results in a low level of expression of cytoprotective genes whose promoter region contains the antioxidant response element (ARE). Alkylation of one or more of the 27 cysteine sulfhydryl groups of human Keap1 is proposed to lead to Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, to upregulation of cytoprotective gene expression by the ARE, and to prevention of degenerative diseases, such as cancer.
The roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Dang Gui; Apiaceae) have a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy for women's disorders and are often called "lady's ginseng". Currently, extracts of A. sinensis are commonly included in numerous dietary supplements used for women's health and as antiaging products. In the present study, we examined the potential chemopreventive activity of A. sinensis extracts by measuring the relative ability to induce the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1).
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical tissue component, providing structural support as well as important regulatory signaling cues to govern cellular growth, metabolism, and differentiation. The study of ECM proteins, however, is hampered by the low solubility of ECM components in common solubilizing reagents. ECM proteins are often not detected during proteomics analyses using unbiased approaches due to solubility issues and relatively low abundance compared to highly abundant cytoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins.
Germander, a plant used in folk medicine, caused an epidemic of cytolytic hepatitis in France. In about half of these patients, a rechallenge caused early recurrence, suggesting an immunoallergic type of hepatitis. Teucrin A (TA) was found responsible for the hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation by CYP3A. In this study, we describe the presence of anti-microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) autoantibodies in the sera of patients who drank germander teas for a long period of time.