Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT; the catalytic protein subunit of telomerase) is subjected to numerous alternative splicing events, but the regulation and function of these splice variants is obscure. Full-length hTERT includes conserved domains that encode reverse transcriptase activity, RNA binding, and other functions. The major splice variant termed ?+?- or ?-deletion is highly expressed in stem and cancer cells, where it codes for a truncated protein lacking most of the reverse transcriptase domain but retaining the known RNA-binding motifs.
Genetic studies implicating the region of human chromosome 18p11.2 in susceptibility to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have observed parent-of-origin effects that may be explained by genomic imprinting. We have identified a transcriptional variant of the GNAL gene in this region, employing an alternative first exon that is 5' to the originally identified start site. This alternative GNAL transcript encodes a longer functional variant of the stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit, Golf.
CONTEXT: Although most of the effort to understand the neurobiology of depressive states and suicide has focused on neuronal processes, recent studies suggest that astroglial dysfunction may play an important role. A truncated variant of the tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB.T1) is expressed in astrocytes, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling has been linked to mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that TrkB.T1 expression is downregulated in suicide completers and that this downregulation is mediated by an epigenetic process.
Human methionine adenosyltransferase 2beta (MAT2beta) encodes for two major splicing variants, V1 and V2, which are differentially expressed in normal tissues. Both variants are induced in human liver cancer and positively regulate growth. The aim of this work was to identify interacting proteins of V1 and V2. His-tagged V1 and V2 were overexpressed in Rosetta pLysS cells, purified, and used in a pulldown assay to identify interacting proteins from human colon cancer cell line RKO cell lysates. The eluted lysates were subjected to Western blot and in solution proteomic analyses.
Methionine adenosyltransferase 2B (MAT2B) encodes for two variant proteins (V1 and V2) that promote cell growth. Using in-solution proteomics, GIT1 (G Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase Interacting ArfGAP 1) was identified as a potential interacting partner of MAT2B. Here, we examined the functional significance of this interplay. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments examined protein interactions. Tissue expression levels of proteins were examined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting.
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets.
Recent research documents how psychosocial stress can alter the expression of the acetylcholinesterase gene to generate at least 3 alternative proteins that are implicated in a wide variety of normal mind-body functions, as well as pathologies. These range from early embryological development, plasticity of the brain in adulthood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and stress-associated dysfunctions of the central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, to age-related neuropathologies.
Spinal manipulation is a manual therapy approach commonly employed by chiropractors, osteopaths and manipulative physiotherapists in the treatment of back pain. It is characterised by a rapid high velocity, low amplitude thrust which commonly causes an audible 'pop' or 'cavitation' in the joint. Any beneficial effects are generally explained with reference to changes in vertebral joint movement. This paper looks at the process of spinal manipulation to see if there is reason to expect effects beyond simple changes in the biomechanics of the spine.
Herba epimedii (Epimedium), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a kidney tonic and antirheumatic medicine for thousands of years. The bioactive components in herba epimedii are mainly prenylated flavonol glycosides, end-products of the flavonoid pathway. Epimedium species are also used as garden plants due to the colorful flowers and leaves. Many R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been identified to regulate the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways.