Amino Acids

Publication Title: 
PloS One

The aging phenotype in humans has been thoroughly studied but a detailed metabolic profiling capable of shading light on the underpinning biological processes of longevity is still missing. Here using a combined metabonomics approach compromising holistic (1)H-NMR profiling and targeted MS approaches, we report for the first time the metabolic phenotype of longevity in a well characterized human aging cohort compromising mostly female centenarians, elderly, and young individuals.

Author(s): 
Collino, Sebastiano
Montoliu, Ivan
Martin, FranÁois-Pierre J.
Scherer, Max
Mari, Daniela
Salvioli, Stefano
Bucci, Laura
Ostan, Rita
Monti, Daniela
Biagi, Elena
Brigidi, Patrizia
Franceschi, Claudio
Rezzi, Serge
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The aging phenotype in humans has been thoroughly studied but a detailed metabolic profiling capable of shading light on the underpinning biological processes of longevity is still missing. Here using a combined metabonomics approach compromising holistic (1)H-NMR profiling and targeted MS approaches, we report for the first time the metabolic phenotype of longevity in a well characterized human aging cohort compromising mostly female centenarians, elderly, and young individuals.

Author(s): 
Collino, Sebastiano
Montoliu, Ivan
Martin, FranÁois-Pierre J.
Scherer, Max
Mari, Daniela
Salvioli, Stefano
Bucci, Laura
Ostan, Rita
Monti, Daniela
Biagi, Elena
Brigidi, Patrizia
Franceschi, Claudio
Rezzi, Serge
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Author(s): 
Visek, W. J.
Publication Title: 
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

Information about effects of protein and amino acid intake on carcinogenesis comes mainly from experiments on laboratory animals. In general, tumor formation and tumor growth are retarded in animals consuming protein- or amino acid-deficient diets, but the effects have been attributed mainly to reduced caloric intake or body weight. Nonetheless, some tumors grow well in animals consuming diets that contain levels of protein that are insufficient to meet their nutritional needs.

Author(s): 
Harper, A. E.
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Bioscience: A Journal and Virtual Library

The incidence of intestinal nutrient malabsorption increases with age. Therefore, an important question is whether there are age-related changes in intestinal nutrient absorption which may contribute to a decline in absorptive capacity. Sugar and amino acid transport per mg intestine generally decreases with age. The proximate mechanism underlying this age-related decrease in transport activity is a decrease in number of transporters per mg.

Author(s): 
Ferraris, R. P.
Publication Title: 
Cell

Sir2 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that connects metabolism with longevity in yeast, flies, and worms. Mammals have seven Sir2 homologs (SIRT1-7). We show that SIRT4 is a mitochondrial enzyme that uses NAD to ADP-ribosylate and downregulate glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. GDH is known to promote the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine, generating ATP, which promotes insulin secretion. Loss of SIRT4 in insulinoma cells activates GDH, thereby upregulating amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion.

Author(s): 
Haigis, Marcia C.
Mostoslavsky, Raul
Haigis, Kevin M.
Fahie, Kamau
Christodoulou, Danos C.
Murphy, Andrew J.
Valenzuela, David M.
Yancopoulos, George D.
Karow, Margaret
Blander, Gil
Wolberger, Cynthia
Prolla, Tomas A.
Weindruch, Richard
Alt, Frederick W.
Guarente, Leonard
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

The determination of whether increased dietary protein can positively affect health outcomes is hindered by the absence of prospective, randomized trials directly addressing this issue in which all pertinent variables are controlled. Consequently, we can only address the question deductively by considering the support for the rationale underlying the notion of a beneficial effect of increased dietary protein intake. With regard to health outcomes, we have focused on older individuals.

Author(s): 
Wolfe, Robert R.
Publication Title: 
The Biochemical Journal

DR (dietary restriction), or reduced food intake without malnutrition, is associated with extended longevity, improved metabolic fitness and increased stress resistance in a wide range of organisms. DR is often referred to as calorie restriction, implying that reduced energy intake is responsible for its widespread and evolutionarily conserved benefits. However, recent data indicate dietary amino acid restriction as a key mediator of DR benefits. In fruitflies, an imbalance in essential amino acid intake is thought to underlie longevity benefits of DR.

Author(s): 
Gallinetti, Jordan
Harputlugil, Eylul
Mitchell, James R.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Aquaporin 11 (AQP11) is a protein channel expressed intracellularly in multiple organs, yet its physiological function is unclear. Aqp11 knockout (KO) mice die early due to malfunction of the kidney, a result of hydropic degeneration of proximal tubule cells. Here we report the generation of liver-specific Aqp11 KO mice, allowing us to study the role of AQP11 protein in liver of mice with normal kidney function. The unchallenged liver-specific Aqp11 KO mice have normal longevity, their livers appeared normal, and the plasma biochemistries revealed only a minor defect in lipid handling.

Author(s): 
Rojek, Aleksandra
F¸chtbauer, Ernst-Martin
F¸chtbauer, Annette
Jelen, Sabina
Malmendal, Anders
Fenton, Robert A.
Nielsen, S¯ren
Publication Title: 
Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Evolution of pollen feeding in Heliconius has allowed exploitation of rich amino acid sources and dramatically reorganized life-history traits. In Heliconius, eggs are produced mainly from adult-acquired resources, leaving somatic development and maintenance to larva effort. This innovation may also have spurred evolution of chemical defence via amino acid-derived cyanogenic glycosides. In contrast, nonpollen-feeding heliconiines must rely almost exclusively on larval-acquired resources for both reproduction and defence.

Author(s): 
Cardoso, M. Z.
Gilbert, L. E.

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