Amodiaquine

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The 71-50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for doxycycline ranged from 0.7 to 108.0 microM and the geometric mean IC50 for the 71 isolates was 11.3 microM (95% confidence interval = 9.5-13.4 microM).

Author(s): 
Pradines, B.
Spiegel, A.
Rogier, C.
Tall, A.
Mosnier, J.
Fusai, T.
Trape, J. F.
Parzy, D.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon.

Author(s): 
Basco, Leonardo K.
Same-Ekobo, Albert
Ngane, Vincent Foumane
Ndounga, Mathieu
Metoh, Theresia
Ringwald, Pascal
Soula, Georges
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Mutations at five positions in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug-resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1), initially thought to confer resistance to chloroquine, have been associated with in vitro resistance to amino alcohols and artemisinin derivatives in more recent studies. To assess the possible association between drug resistance phenotype and pfmdrl polymorphisms and establish the baseline pfmdr1 sequence data in Yaoundé, Cameroon, the in vitro drug sensitivity pattern was determined for 64 clinical isolates by isotopic microtest.

Author(s): 
Basco, Leonardo K.
Ringwald, Pascal
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance is a major cause of worldwide increases in malaria mortality and morbidity. Recent laboratory and clinical studies have associated chloroquine resistance with point mutations in the gene pfcrt. However, direct proof of a causal relationship has remained elusive and most models have posited a multigenic basis of resistance.

Author(s): 
Sidhu, Amar Bir Singh
Verdier-Pinard, Dominik
Fidock, David A.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Genotyping frequently is used to distinguish recrudescent from new infections in antimalarial drug efficacy trials, but methodology and interpretation of results have not been standardized. We compared the utility of polymorphisms within 3 Plasmodium falciparum genes during a longitudinal trial in Kampala, Uganda. Merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) and merozoite surface protein-2 (msp-2) revealed greater diversity than glutamate-rich protein. Genotypes based on msp-1, msp-2, and all 3 genes combined were compared for 394 initial and subsequent isolates.

Author(s): 
Cattamanchi, Adithya
Kyabayinze, Daniel
Hubbard, Alan
Rosenthal, Philip J.
Dorsey, Grant
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The safety and the efficacy of amodiaquine (AQ) alone, AQ plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (AQ plus SP), and artesunate (ART) plus SP (ART plus SP), three possible alternatives to chloroquine (CQ), were investigated in 379 Rwandan children 6-59 months old with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria who visited one urban/peri-urban health center and two rural health centers. The three treatment regimens were well tolerated and no serious adverse effects were observed.

Author(s): 
Rwagacondo, Claude E.
Niyitegeka, Francois
Sarushi, Joseph
Karema, Corine
Mugisha, Veronique
Dujardin, Jean-Claude
Van Overmeir, Chantal
Van den Ende, Jef
D'Alessandro, Umberto
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Combination antimalarial therapy may delay the spread of drug resistance, but clinical data supporting this notion are limited. For 1 year, we studied Ugandan children who were treated for uncomplicated malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), SP + amodiaquine (AQ), or SP + artesunate (AS). We compared treatment responses and the prevalence of resistance-conferring mutations of new infections with those of recrudescent infections due to parasites that survived prior treatment.

Author(s): 
Dorsey, Grant
Vlahos, Jonathan
Kamya, Moses R.
Staedke, Sarah G.
Rosenthal, Philip J.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Combining artesunate (AR) with existing antimalarial drugs may improve cure rates, delay emergence of resistance and reduce parasite clearance time. In order to investigate the latter, we conducted a randomized clinical trial testing the AR plus amodiaquine (AQ) combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso. Children aged 1-15 years were randomly assigned to either AQ (10 mg/kg) or AR (4 mg/kg first day then half dose) or AQ + AR (AQAR) as a single daily dose under supervision for three consecutive days for all groups.

Author(s): 
Barennes, Hubert
Nagot, Nicholas
Valea, Innocent
Koussoubé-Balima, Tatiana
Ouedraogo, Albert
Sanou, Thérèse
Yé, Suzanne
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

Antimalarial drug resistance has now become a serious global challenge and is the principal reason for the decline in antimalarial drug efficacy. Malaria endemic countries need inexpensive and efficacious drugs. Preserving the life spans of antimalarial drugs is a key part of the strategy for rolling back malaria. Artemisinin-based combinations offer a new and potentially highly effective way to counter drug resistance. Clinical trials conducted in African children have attested to the good tolerability of oral artesunate when combined with standard antimalarial drugs.

Author(s): 
Taylor, Walter R.
Rigal, Jean
Olliaro, Piero L.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Faced with the problem of resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the Ministry of Public Health of Burundi decided to study the efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations, the fixed combination of artemether-lumefantrine and the combination of amodiaquine + artesunate. The efficacy of these combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was studied in two sites representative of the country, in Kigobe neighbourhood of Bujumbura, the capital city, and in Buhiga, a rural area.

Author(s): 
Ndayiragije, Athanase
Niyungeko, Déo
Karenzo, Jeanne
Niyungeko, Ernest
Barutwanayo, Marianne
Ciza, Alphonse
Bosman, Andrea
Moyou-Somo, Roger
Nahimana, Adélaïde
Nyarushatsi, Jean Paul
Barihuta, Tharcisse
Mizero, Liévin
Ndaruhutse, Jérome
Delacollette, Charles
Ringwald, Pascal
Kamana, Jean

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