Analgesia, Obstetrical

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of alternative and complementary therapies for pain management in labour. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity.

Author(s): 
Smith, C. A.
Collins, C. T.
Cyna, A. M.
Crowther, C. A.
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica

Childbirth ranks among the most intense experiences of acute pain. Neuraxial analgesia (i.e. epidural or combined spinal-epidural technique) is the most effective way to relieve that pain but it is contraindicated or impossible to perform for some parturients. We designed a survey of the current use of analgesic alternatives to epidural analgesia (EA) for labor pain, specifically the use of opioid patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA), in the French part of Belgium (Wallonia and Brussels).

Author(s): 
Lavand'homme, P.
Roelants, F.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

Hypnosis during pregnancy and childbirth has been shown to reduce labor analgesia use and other medical interventions. We aimed to investigate whether there was a difference in hypnotizability in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Study participants had hypnotizability measured by the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) in the third trimester of pregnancy and subsequently between 14 and 28 months postpartum and when not pregnant. The 37 participants who completed the study gave birth in the largest maternity unit in South Australia between January 2006 and March 2007.

Author(s): 
Alexander, Beth
Turnbull, Deborah
Cyna, Allan
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Intracutaneous or subcutaneous injection of sterile water is rapidly gaining popularity as a method of pain relief in labour and it is therefore essential that it is properly evaluated. Adequate analgesia in labour is important to women worldwide. Sterile water injection is inexpensive, requires basic equipment, and appears to have few side effects. It is purported to work for labour pain.

Author(s): 
Derry, Sheena
Straube, Sebastian
Moore, R. Andrew
Hancock, Heather
Collins, Sally L.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: The pain that women experience during labour is affected by multiple physiological and psychosocial factors and its intensity can vary greatly.  Most women in labour require pain relief. Pain management strategies include non-pharmacological interventions (that aim to help women cope with pain in labour) and pharmacological interventions (that aim to relieve the pain of labour). OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions to manage pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Jones, Leanne
Othman, Mohammad
Dowswell, Therese
Alfirevic, Zarko
Gates, Simon
Newburn, Mary
Jordan, Susan
Lavender, Tina
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
American Family Physician

Regional analgesia has become the most common method of pain relief used during labor in the United States. Epidural and spinal analgesia are two types of regional analgesia. With epidural analgesia, an indwelling catheter is directed into the epidural space, and the patient receives a continuous infusion or multiple injections of local anesthetic. Spinal injections are usually single injections into the intrathecal space. A combination of epidural and spinal analgesia, known as a walking epidural, also is available.

Author(s): 
Schrock, Steven D.
Harraway-Smith, Carolyn
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Labour is a normal physiological process, but is usually associated with pain and discomfort. Numerous methods are used to relieve labour pain. These include pharmacological (e.g. epidural, opioids, inhaled analgesia) and non-pharmacological (e.g. hypnosis, acupuncture) methods of pain management. Non-opioid drugs are a pharmacological method used to control mild to moderate pain. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence regarding the effects and safety of the use of non-opioid drugs to relieve pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Othman, Mohammad
Jones, Leanne
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pain management for childbirth. These reviews all contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain management for women in labour, and share a generic protocol. We examined the current evidence regarding the use of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. This review updates the findings regarding hypnosis from an earlier review of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour into a stand-alone review.

Author(s): 
Madden, Kelly
Middleton, Philippa
Cyna, Allan M.
Matthewson, Mandy
Jones, Leanne
Publication Title: 
BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the use of epidural analgesia and experienced pain during childbirth after a short antenatal training course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled, single-blinded trial using a three-arm design. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital Skejby in Denmark during the period July 2009 until August 2011. POPULATION: A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women.

Author(s): 
Werner, A.
Uldbjerg, N.
Zachariae, R.
Rosen, G.
Nohr, E. A.
Publication Title: 
BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology

OBJECTIVE: To determine the use of pharmacologic analgesia during childbirth when antenatal hypnosis is added to standard care. DESIGN: Randomised controlled clinical trial, conducted from December 2005 to December 2010. SETTING: The largest tertiary referral centre for maternity care in South Australia. POPULATION: A cohort of 448 women at >34 weeks of gestation, with a singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation, planning a vaginal birth.

Author(s): 
Cyna, A. M.
Crowther, C. A.
Robinson, J. S.
Andrew, M. I.
Antoniou, G.
Baghurst, P.

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