Analgesics, Non-Narcotic

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Labour is a normal physiological process, but is usually associated with pain and discomfort. Numerous methods are used to relieve labour pain. These include pharmacological (e.g. epidural, opioids, inhaled analgesia) and non-pharmacological (e.g. hypnosis, acupuncture) methods of pain management. Non-opioid drugs are a pharmacological method used to control mild to moderate pain. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence regarding the effects and safety of the use of non-opioid drugs to relieve pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Othman, Mohammad
Jones, Leanne
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Internal Medicine

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors, such as genetics, diet, estrogen use, and bone density, and local biomechanical factors, such as muscle weakness, obesity, and joint laxity. These risk factors are particularly important in the weight-bearing joints, and modifying them may help prevent osteoarthritis-related pain and disability.

Author(s): 
Felson, D. T.
Lawrence, R. C.
Hochberg, M. C.
McAlindon, T.
Dieppe, P. A.
Minor, M. A.
Blair, S. N.
Berman, B. M.
Fries, J. F.
Weinberger, M.
Lorig, K. R.
Jacobs, J. J.
Goldberg, V.
Publication Title: 
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a commonly seen pain condition with limited treatments available, and acupuncture is widely used for pain conditions, including TN. OBJECTIVES: To review the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for TN. METHODS: English and Chinese databases were searched extensively to identify randomized controlled studies of acupuncture treatment for TN. Selected studies were assessed for methodological quality. Odds ratios (OR) between treatment and control groups were used to assess efficacy.

Author(s): 
Liu, Hua
Li, Hong
Xu, Min
Chung, Ka-Fai
Zhang, Shi Ping
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Labour is a normal physiological process, but is usually associated with pain and discomfort. Numerous methods are used to relieve labour pain. These include pharmacological (e.g. epidural, opioids, inhaled analgesia) and non-pharmacological (e.g. hypnosis, acupuncture) methods of pain management. Non-opioid drugs are a pharmacological method used to control mild to moderate pain. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence regarding the effects and safety of the use of non-opioid drugs to relieve pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Othman, Mohammad
Jones, Leanne
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Author(s): 
Werbel, E. W.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Author(s): 
Kolouch, F. T.
Publication Title: 
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

The methanol extract of Huira-Huira (Culcitium canescens) showed analgesic effects in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail pressure tests, and it also produced potent prolongation of hypnosis induced by pentobarbital. The latter activity was used as an isolation-guide to determine the active components which were identified as dehydrocacalohastine, cacalohastine and cacalonol.

Author(s): 
Okuyama, E.
Umeyama, K.
Ohmori, S.
Yamazaki, M.
Satake, M.
Publication Title: 
Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde

The use of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine as anaesthetic for dental surgery was investigated in 60 dogs. The nature of the interventions varied from inspection of the teeth with cleaning of the teeth or simple tooth extraction to extraction of one or more dental elements or endodontic treatment. The operations lasted between 20 and 70 minutes, with an average of 34 +/- 15 minutes. Medetomidine, 1000 m g/m2 body surface administered intramuscularly, was used as premedication. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenously administered ketamine at a dose of 2-3 mg/kg body weight.

Author(s): 
Sap, R.
Hellebrekers, L. J.
van Foreest, A. W.
ter Beek, F. J.
Publication Title: 
Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde

The use of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine as anaesthetic for dental surgery was investigated in 60 dogs. The nature of the interventions varied from inspection of the teeth with cleaning of the teeth or simple tooth extraction to extraction of one or more dental elements or endodontic treatment. The operations lasted between 20 and 70 minutes, with an average of 34 +/- 15 minutes. Medetomidine, 1000 micrograms/m2 body surface administered intramuscularly, was used as premedication.

Author(s): 
Sap, R.
Hellebrekers, L. J.
van Foreest, A. W.
ter Beek, F. J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats.

Author(s): 
Bol, C. J.
Vogelaar, J. P.
Mandema, J. W.

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