Analgesics

Publication Title: 
AIDS care

Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients' chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality.

Author(s): 
Merlin, Jessica S.
Bulls, Hailey W.
Vucovich, Lee A.
Edelman, E. Jennifer
Starrels, Joanna L.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia

Ketamine is a unique anesthetic drug that provides analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia with minimal respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Because of its sympathomimetic properties it would seem to be an excellent choice for patients with depressed ventricular function in cardiac surgery. However, its use has not gained widespread acceptance in adult cardiac surgery patients, perhaps due to its perceived negative psychotropic effects. Despite this limitation, it is receiving renewed interest in the United States as a sedative and analgesic drug for critically ill-patients.

Author(s): 
Mazzeffi, Michael
Johnson, Kyle
Paciullo, Christopher
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: The pain that women experience during labour is affected by multiple physiological and psychosocial factors and its intensity can vary greatly.  Most women in labour require pain relief. Pain management strategies include non-pharmacological interventions (that aim to help women cope with pain in labour) and pharmacological interventions (that aim to relieve the pain of labour). OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions to manage pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Jones, Leanne
Othman, Mohammad
Dowswell, Therese
Alfirevic, Zarko
Gates, Simon
Newburn, Mary
Jordan, Susan
Lavender, Tina
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
Family Practice

BACKGROUND: A number of different therapies have been used for postherpetic neuralgia. We decided to conduct a systematic review of existing randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of available therapies for relieving the pain of established postherpetic neuralgia. METHODS: We performed a systematic review, including meta-analysis, of existing randomized controlled trials. Eleven published trials and one unpublished trial were identified which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the current review.

Author(s): 
Volmink, J.
Lancaster, T.
Gray, S.
Silagy, C.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pain (London, England)

AIM: We investigated the literature of randomised placebo-controlled trials to find out if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) can reduce analgesic consumption after surgery. RESULTS: Subgroup analysis for adequate treatment (pulse frequency: 1-8Hz [ALTENS] or 25-150Hz [TENS], current intensity: "strong, definite, subnoxious, maximal tolerable" or above 15mA, and electrode placement in the incision area) were performed.

Author(s): 
Bjordal, Jan Magnus
Johnson, Mark I.
Ljunggreen, Anne Elisabeth
Publication Title: 
Fortschritte Der Neurologie-Psychiatrie

Back pain has to be classified by localisation, duration, and existence or absence of neurological deficits. Therapy mainly depends on the severity of neurological symptoms. The time period between the onset of symptoms and efficient therapy should be short in order to prevent the development of chronic pain. Therefore a sufficient, consistent and evidence-based conservative treatment should be initiated early on, with the only exception of special emergency situations as described further down in this article.

Author(s): 
Weiland, T.
Wessel, K.
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for both efficacy and adverse events of analgesic therapy for PHN.

Author(s): 
Hempenstall, Kathleen
Nurmikko, Turo J.
Johnson, Robert W.
A'Hern, Roger P.
Rice, Andrew S. C.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree and duration of pain relief provided by specific pain treatments used by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who have chronic pain. DESIGN: Postal survey. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 117 individuals who had traumatic SCI, were 18 years of age or older, and reported a chronic pain problem. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Questions assessing current or past use of 26 different pain treatments, the amount of relief each treatment provided, and the length of time that any pain relief usually lasts.

Author(s): 
Cardenas, Diana D.
Jensen, Mark P.
Publication Title: 
Spine

STUDY DESIGN: Best evidence synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance to primary care clinicians about how to best assess and treat patients with neck pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is a need to translate the results of clinical and epidemiologic studies into meaningful and practical information for clinicians.

Author(s): 
Guzman, Jaime
Haldeman, Scott
Carroll, Linda J.
Carragee, Eugene J.
Hurwitz, Eric L.
Peloso, Paul
Nordin, Margareta
Cassidy, J. David
Holm, Lena W.
Côté, Pierre
van der Velde, Gabrielle
Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah
Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders
Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

The clinical practice guideline was explicitly developed to include only treatments less invasive than knee replacement (ie, arthroplasty). Patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee are to be encouraged to participate in self-management educational programs and to engage in self-care, as well as to lose weight and engage in exercise and quadriceps strengthening. The guideline recommends taping for short-term relief of pain as well as analgesics and intra-articular corticosteroids, but not glucosamine and/or chondroitin.

Author(s): 
Richmond, John
Hunter, David
Irrgang, Jay
Jones, Morgan H.
Levy, Bruce
Marx, Robert
Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Watters, William C.
Haralson, Robert H.
Turkelson, Charles M.
Wies, Janet L.
Boyer, Kevin M.
Anderson, Sara
St Andre, Justin
Sluka, Patrick
McGowan, Richard
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

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