AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Although the efficacy of small-group, risk reduction interventions based on cognitive behavioral principles has been widely documented in HIV behavioral research literature, little is known about how AIDS service organizations (ASOs) view these research-based models. From a nationwide sample of 77 ASOs, this study assessed factors influencing attitudes of prevention program directors and frontline staff toward research-based interventions.
We investigated the influence of indicators of methodological quality on study outcome in a set of 89 placebo-controlled clinical trials of homoeopathy in three different ways: (1) The results of studies meeting single criteria (explicit statement of random allocation, allocation concealment, double-blinding, completeness of follow-up) of methodological quality were compared with those of studies not meeting the criteria in univariate and multivariate analyses; (2) The results of studies scoring above and below predefined scores in two quality assessment scales were compared; (3) Primary st
We tested, under independent conditions, the reproducibility of evidence from two previous trials that homoeopathy differs from placebo. The test model was again homoeopathic immunotherapy. 28 patients with allergic asthma, most of them sensitive to house-dust mite, were randomly allocated to receive either oral homoeopathic immunotherapy to their principal allergen or identical placebo. The test treatments were given as a complement to their unaltered conventional care. A daily visual analogue scale of overall symptom intensity was the outcome measure.
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the homeopathic medicine Arnica D30 has an effect on muscle soreness and cell damage after marathon running. METHODS: The subjects were 82 marathon runners from two separate randomised double-blind placebo controlled trials participating in the Oslo Marathon in 1990 and 1995. Five pills of Arnica D30 or placebo were given morning and evening. Treatment started on the evening before the marathon and continued on day of the race and the three following days. The runners assessed muscular soreness on a visual analogue scale.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
BACKGROUND: Sustained and subtle hyperventilation can result in a wide variety of symptoms, leading to a chronic condition that has been termed hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). Treatment options include physiotherapy, in the form of breathing retraining (BR), but additional approaches aim to reduce the anxiety that is recognized as being a frequent component of this condition.
BACKGROUND: Estimating a realistic effect size is an important issue in the planning of clinical studies of complementary and alternative medicine therapies. When a minimally important difference is not available, researchers may estimate effect size using the published literature. This evidence-based effect size estimation may be used to produce a range of empirically-informed effect size and consequent sample size estimates. We provide an illustration of deriving plausible effect size ranges for a study of acupuncture in the relief of post-chemotherapy fatigue in breast cancer patients.
BACKGROUND: Network meta-analysis methods, which are an extension of the standard pair-wise synthesis framework, allow for the simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions and consideration of the entire body of evidence in a single statistical model. There are well-established advantages to using individual patient data to perform network meta-analysis and methods for network meta-analysis of individual patient data have already been developed for dichotomous and time-to-event data.
We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers.
The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, arbutin and kojic acid, the reference compounds.
International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
PURPOSE: Kidney stone is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) has been shown to be the main component of the majority of stones formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study evaluates the antilithiatic properties of Terminalia chebula commonly called as ?harad ? which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia chebula was investigated on nucleation and growth of the calcium oxalate crystals.