The interaction of intramuscularly injected ketamine and its N-demethylated metabolite (metabolite I) with halothane was evaluated in rats. Five, 10, 20, or 50 mg/kg of ketamine alone or 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg of metabolite I alone produced less than 10 minutes of hypnosis. However, halothane anesthetic requirement (i.e., MAC) was depressed in a dose-dependent fashion as much as 56% 1-2 hours and as much as 14% 5-6 hours after injection of ketamine, 50 mg/kg, im.
To evaluate the hypothesis that inhalation of low levels of nitrous oxide-oxygen produces an altered state of consciousness similar to hypnosis, 20 subjects were given three suggestions (analgesia, compulsive behavior, and amnesia) during double-blind administration of either nitrous oxide-oxygen or oxygen. Results suggest that administration of nitrous oxide-oxygen may be of increased clinical usefulness if it is combined with careful use of suggestion.
Surveys indicate that the adolescent, in particular, suffers from acute anxiety in relation to dentistry. This anxiety is promoted by the general opinion they form of dentists and dentistry through portrayal by their peers and the media. In addition, their own attitude to dentistry, both positive and negative, is influenced to a large extent by the dentist himself. This patient-dentist relationship is, therefore, especially important when treating the adolescent and this should be emphasized in the dental undergraduate curriculum.
We studied 94 healthy ASA physical status I or II children to determine the end-expired concentration of halothane associated with eye opening on emergence from anesthesia, and to determine if parenteral opioid therapy or regional analgesia significantly altered this concentration. In our study, anesthesia was maintained with halothane in an air-oxygen mixture. After the surgical procedure was completed, the inspired concentration of halothane was adjusted to zero and the end-expired concentrations were permitted to decrease spontaneously.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to control the depth, the quality of recovery of total inhalation isoflurane anesthesia with or without nitrous oxide. DESIGN: Controlled comparative study was carried out on 51 patients, aged 40-54 yr, ASA 1, undergoing saphenectomy, in an University Clinic. METHODS: Induction: thiopental (3.5 mg kg), atracurium (0.6 mg kg) i.v. Patients were randomly assigned to: group 1 (26 patients), 5% isoflurane in air, by mask; group 2 (25 patients), 3% isoflurane and 60% N2O, by mask.
BACKGROUND: In humans the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia is biphasic: an initial increase in minute ventilation (VE) from baseline, the acute hypoxic response, is followed after 3-5 min by a slow ventilatory decay, the hypoxic ventilatory decline, and a new steady state, 25-40% greater than baseline VE, is reached in about 15-20 min. The transition from 20 min of isocapnic hypoxia into normoxia results in a rapid decrease in VE, the off-response. In humans, halothane, at subanesthetic concentrations, is known to decrease the acute hypoxic response.