Anesthetics

Publication Title: 
Obstetrics and Gynecology

Labor causes severe pain for many women. There is no other circumstance in which it is considered acceptable for an individual to experience untreated severe pain that is amenable to safe intervention while the individual is under a physician's care. Many women desire pain management during labor and delivery, and there are many medical indications for analgesia and anesthesia during labor and delivery. In the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labor.

Publication Title: 
Obstetrics and Gynecology

Labor causes severe pain for many women. There is no other circumstance in which it is considered acceptable for an individual to experience untreated severe pain that is amenable to safe intervention while the individual is under a physician's care. Many women desire pain management during labor and delivery, and there are many medical indications for analgesia and anesthesia during labor and delivery. In the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labor.

Author(s): 
Committee on Practice Bulletins—Obstetrics
Publication Title: 
The Laryngoscope
Author(s): 
Marmer, M. J.
Publication Title: 
Postgraduate Medicine
Author(s): 
Zelenik, J. S.
Publication Title: 
Neuropharmacology
Author(s): 
Winters, W. D.
Kott, K. S.
Publication Title: 
Minerva Anestesiologica

Regional - mostly spinal and epidural - anaesthesia associated with pharmacological hypnosis in approximately fifty general surgery and orthopaedic patients is described. The advantage of this type of management is that patients are sedated during the operation and in the post-operative period, coupled, in the latter situation, with a good antalgic effect.

Author(s): 
Mellano, C.
Cattaneo, P.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

Midazolam is an imidazobenzodiazepine with unique properties when compared with other benzodiazepines. It is water soluble in its acid formulation but is highly lipid soluble in vivo. Midazolam also has a relatively rapid onset of action and high metabolic clearance when compared with other benzodiazepines. The drug produces reliable hypnosis, amnesia, and antianxiety effects when administered orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously.

Author(s): 
Reves, J. G.
Fragen, R. J.
Vinik, H. R.
Greenblatt, D. J.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

The effects of a single dose of cyclosporine on anesthetic actions of pentobarbital and fentanyl were studied in mice. Mice given pentobarbital 2 hr after receiving cyclosporine, 60 mg/kg, slept a statistically significant 2.3 times longer than did controls. In a second study, each of two dose levels of cyclosporine was given before each of four dose levels of fentanyl. The analgesic effect of fentanyl, measured with the abdominal constriction test, was dose-dependent. Cyclosporine significantly increased the analgesia produced by fentanyl and did so in a dose-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Cirella, V. N.
Pantuck, C. B.
Lee, Y. J.
Pantuck, E. J.
Publication Title: 
Anaesthesia

The combination of propofol and alfentanil was administered to 20 patients for total intravenous anaesthesia during general surgery. The infusion rates for both drugs were controlled by microprocessors in order to institute constant blood levels adapted to the patients' varying needs. The mean blood level of propofol required for adequate hypnosis during anaesthesia was 2.42 micrograms/ml (SD 0.43). Awakening occurred 7.9 minutes (SD 3.4) after the end of the infusion, at a propofol blood level of 1.59 micrograms/ml (SD 0.34).

Author(s): 
Schüttler, J.
Kloos, S.
Schwilden, H.
Stoeckel, H.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective and potent alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, reduces halothane anesthetic requirements by over 90% in rats. The present study examined whether dexmedetomidine produces a hypnotic-anesthetic action in rats. Dexmedetomidine induced a hypnotic-anesthetic state in rats characterized by loss of righting reflex at doses greater than or equal to 0.1 mg/kg. This response was dose-dependent between 0.1 and 3 mg/kg.

Author(s): 
Doze, V. A.
Chen, B. X.
Maze, M.

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