The use of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine as anaesthetic for dental surgery was investigated in 60 dogs. The nature of the interventions varied from inspection of the teeth with cleaning of the teeth or simple tooth extraction to extraction of one or more dental elements or endodontic treatment. The operations lasted between 20 and 70 minutes, with an average of 34 +/- 15 minutes. Medetomidine, 1000 micrograms/m2 body surface administered intramuscularly, was used as premedication.
We have studied 64 ASA I and II patients (aged 20-60 yr) to determine if nitrous oxide affects sevoflurane requirement for achieving 50% probability of no movement in response to verbal commands (MACawake). Patients were allocated randomly to one of four nitrous oxide concentration groups (0, 20, 40 and 60 vol.%). Patients in each group received sevoflurane at two different end-tidal concentrations according to a predetermined randomization table.
A clinical study on 46 patients, who were operated on for ophthalmologic diseases under local anaesthesia, is presented. Midazolam, diazepam and/or pethidine, given to the patients 5-10 minutes before the operation improved the classical local anaesthesia; they ensured hypnosis, analgesia, anterograde amnesia and vegetative protection, thus offering a high surgical comfort and diminishing considerably the rate of the well known incidences and complications of the local anaesthesia.
This study investigated the effect of co-administration of nitrous oxide on the cardiovascular changes during induction of anesthesia with propofol infusion at a low rate. Sixty patients undergoing general anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups, and received the inhalation of 100% oxygen (group 1) or 60% nitrous oxide and oxygen (group 2) via face mask for 3 minutes before administration of propofol at 15 mg.kg-1.hr-1.
BACKGROUND: We report the evaluation of six sedative-hypnotic and analgesic combinations administered to children undergoing brief periods of unconscious (or deep) sedation for painful procedures. METHODS: In a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled study of six groups of 27-30 children each, patients were randomly assigned to receive propofol or methohexital for sedation-hypnosis, and one of three incremental doses of fentanyl or remifentanil, respectively.
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is a balance between hypnosis and analgesia. We investigated whether an increase in remifentanil blood concentration would reduce the amount of propofol required to maintain a comparable level of anaesthesia in 60 patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. METHODS: Patients were allocated randomly to receive remifentanil to a target blood concentration of 2 ng ml(-1) (low), 4 ng ml(-1) (medium), or 8 ng ml(-1) (high), administered by target-controlled infusion (TCI).
BACKGROUND: The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the level of anaesthetic depth has not been studied previously in a randomized way. METHODS: We assessed the effect of CPB on the propofol needed to maintain a fixed bispectral index score, and on the recovery from anaesthesia in 22 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with CPB (on-pump) compared with 18 patients operated on without CPB (off-pump). Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and alfentanil.
BACKGROUND: The Bispectral Index (BIS) and spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram can be used to assess the depth of hypnosis. Ketamine is known to increase BIS in anaesthetized patients and may confound that index as a guide to steer administration of hypnotics. We compared the effects of ketamine on BIS, response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE) during surgery under sevoflurane anaesthesia. METHODS: Twenty-two women undergoing gynaecological surgery were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized study. Anaesthesia was induced i.v. and maintained with sevoflurane.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Combined (local and general) anaesthesia or Balanced (intravenous analgesics and inhalational hypnotics) anaesthesia are commonly used in paediatrics. The authors have investigated the influence of both types of anaesthesia on the requirements of sevoflurane to maintain an adequate level of hypnosis as measured by Bispectral index (at around 50) monitoring in paediatric orthopaedic patients.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of spectral frequency index (SFx) monitoring to assess the depth of anaesthesia during propofol-opioid total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA). METHODS: Thirty-three patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under propofol TIVA were prospectively and randomly allocated to receive either remifentanil (bolus of 1.0 microg/kg, followed by continuous infusion from 0.25 to 0.05 microg/kg/min) [n = 18] or alfentanil (bolus of 10 microg/kg, followed by continuous infusion from 2.0 to 0.5 microg/kg/min) [n = 15].