Anesthetics, Dissociative

Publication Title: 
Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde

The use of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine as anaesthetic for dental surgery was investigated in 60 dogs. The nature of the interventions varied from inspection of the teeth with cleaning of the teeth or simple tooth extraction to extraction of one or more dental elements or endodontic treatment. The operations lasted between 20 and 70 minutes, with an average of 34 +/- 15 minutes. Medetomidine, 1000 m g/m2 body surface administered intramuscularly, was used as premedication. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenously administered ketamine at a dose of 2-3 mg/kg body weight.

Author(s): 
Sap, R.
Hellebrekers, L. J.
van Foreest, A. W.
ter Beek, F. J.
Publication Title: 
Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde

The use of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine as anaesthetic for dental surgery was investigated in 60 dogs. The nature of the interventions varied from inspection of the teeth with cleaning of the teeth or simple tooth extraction to extraction of one or more dental elements or endodontic treatment. The operations lasted between 20 and 70 minutes, with an average of 34 +/- 15 minutes. Medetomidine, 1000 micrograms/m2 body surface administered intramuscularly, was used as premedication.

Author(s): 
Sap, R.
Hellebrekers, L. J.
van Foreest, A. W.
ter Beek, F. J.
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

BACKGROUND: We studied the effect of variable doses of ketamine on the endpoints of hypnosis, e.g., unresponsiveness to verbal commands (UVC), loss of eyelash reflex (LER), and inhibition of body movement response with or without sneezing to nasal membrane stimulation (INBMR), and processed EEG variables, e.g., bispectral index (BIS), 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF) and median frequency (MF) during propofol infusion.

Author(s): 
Sakai, T.
Singh, H.
Mi, W. D.
Kudo, T.
Matsuki, A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of a standardized stimulus during propofol-only hypnosis on the bispectral index (BIS) value with the effect of the injection of local anesthesia for surgery during ketamine plus propofol hypnosis (dissociative monitored anesthesia care). To determine whether ketamine increases the level of propofol hypnosis when used in dissociative doses. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Private practice office plastic surgery suites.

Author(s): 
Friedberg, B. L.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Anaesthesiology

We investigated the effect of a small dose of midazolam, ketamine, droperidol or lidocaine on the propofol dose required for hypnosis during induction of general anaesthesia. These drugs were randomly administered to 100 patients about to undergo scheduled surgery. Propofol was then infused at a rate of 250 microg kg-1 min-1 and the hypnotic dose to produce hypnosis was evaluated.

Author(s): 
Adachi, Y. U.
Uchihashi, Y.
Watanabe, K.
Satoh, T.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

We studied the interactions between a local anesthetic agent, lidocaine, and two general anesthetic drugs, propofol and ketamine, in mice. We used two end points: hypnosis, reflected by loss of the righting reflex, and death. The ED50 for hypnosis and the LD50 were determined for each drug separately, and a dose-response curve was prepared for each drug, using combinations of propofol-lidocane and ketamine-lidocaine at three different dose ratios.

Author(s): 
Barak, M.
Ben-Shlomo, I.
Katz, Y.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Author(s): 
Friedberg, Barry L.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

Ketamine is an IV anesthetic with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-blocking properties. However, it is still unclear whether ketamine's general anesthetic actions are mediated primarily via blockade of NMDAR. Functional NMDARs are composed by the assembly of a GluRzeta1 (NR1) subunit with GluRepsilon (GluRepsilon1-4; NR2A-D) subunits, which confer unique properties on native NMDARs. We hypothesized that animals deficient in GluRepsilon1, an abundant and ubiquitously postnatally expressed NMDAR subunit, might be resistant to the effects of ketamine.

Author(s): 
Petrenko, Andrey B.
Yamakura, Tomohiro
Fujiwara, Naoshi
Askalany, Ahmed R.
Baba, Hiroshi
Sakimura, Kenji
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: The Bispectral Index (BIS) and spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram can be used to assess the depth of hypnosis. Ketamine is known to increase BIS in anaesthetized patients and may confound that index as a guide to steer administration of hypnotics. We compared the effects of ketamine on BIS, response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE) during surgery under sevoflurane anaesthesia. METHODS: Twenty-two women undergoing gynaecological surgery were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized study. Anaesthesia was induced i.v. and maintained with sevoflurane.

Author(s): 
Hans, P.
Dewandre, P.-Y.
Brichant, J. F.
Bonhomme, V.
Publication Title: 
Life Sciences

Ketamine is a racemic mixture containing equal parts of (+)-ketamine and (-)-ketamine. The ketamine enantiomorphs are different in anesthesia and psychic emergence reactions after anesthesia. Therefore, (+)-ketamine was compared with racemic ketamine in a number of randomized studies in volunteers and patients. However, their relations remain controversial. In the present studies, the psychic emergence reactions after injection of (+/-)-ketamine and (+)-ketamine were compared in mice.

Author(s): 
Liu, Jing
Ji, Xing-Quan
Zhu, Xing-Zu

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