Anesthetics, General

Publication Title: 
Pain

The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture as an adjunctive analgesic method to standard anaesthetic procedures for surgery and to determine whether acupuncture has any analgesic-sparing effect. Electronic literature searches for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture during surgery were performed in seven electronic databases. No language restrictions were imposed. All included studies were rated according to their methodological quality and validity. As the studies were clinically heterogeneous, no meta-analyses were performed.

Author(s): 
Lee, Hyangsook
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
The Nursing Clinics of North America

General anesthesia is a state of reversible, descending depression of the central nervous system that is induced by inhalational or intravenous drugs. Components of general anesthesia include hypnosis, analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation. Recognized anesthesia providers include CRNAs and anesthesiologists. Improvements in pharmacologic agents, technology, and education of providers have sharply reduced morbidity and mortality associated with anesthesia.

Author(s): 
Ouellette, S. M.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology & Toxicology

An alcohol-sensitive rat line, selectively bred for high sensitivity to ethanol-induced motor impairment, also exhibits greater sensitivity to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor agonists, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, than an alcohol-insensitive rat line. We have investigated whether this difference was also maintained for the most recent intravenous anaesthetic, propofol. Propofol (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) induced similar sleep times and produced identical plasma propofol concentrations in alcohol-sensitive and alcohol-insensitive rat lines.

Author(s): 
Yildirim, Y.
Niemi, L.
Wong, G.
Korpi, E. R.
Rosenberg, P. H.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: The mammalian gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor, a likely target of anesthetic action, exhibits remarkable subunit heterogeneity. In vitro expression studies suggest that there is subunit specificity to anesthetic responses at the GABA(A) receptor. The authors tested whether genetically engineered mice that lack the beta3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor differed in their sensitivities to several general anesthetic agents.

Author(s): 
Quinlan, J. J.
Homanics, G. E.
Firestone, L. L.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether memory of intraoperative events results entirely from moments of inadequate anesthesia. The current study was designed to determine whether the probability of memory declines with increasing depth of the hypnotic state. METHOD: A list of words was played via headphones during surgery to patients who had suffered acute trauma. Several commonly used indicators of anesthetic effect, including the bispectral index, were recorded during word presentation.

Author(s): 
Lubke, G. H.
Kerssens, C.
Phaf, H.
Sebel, P. S.
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

General anesthetics are among the most widely used and important therapeutic agents. The molecular targets mediating different endpoints of the anesthetic state in vivo are currently largely unknown. The analysis of mice carrying point mutations in neurotransmitter receptor subunits is a powerful tool to assess the contribution of the respective receptor subtype to the pharmacological actions of clinically used general anesthetics.

Author(s): 
Zeller, Anja
Arras, Margarete
Lazaris, Anelise
Jurd, Rachel
Rudolph, Uwe
Publication Title: 
IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering

During general anesthesia drugs are administered to provide hypnosis, ensure analgesia, and skeletal muscle relaxation. In this paper, the main components of a newly developed controller for skeletal muscle relaxation are described. Muscle relaxation is controlled by administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The degree of relaxation is assessed by supramaximal train-of-four stimulation of the ulnar nerve and measuring the electromyogram response of the adductor pollicis muscle.

Author(s): 
Stadler, Konrad S.
Schumacher, Peter M.
Hirter, Sibylle
Leibundgut, Daniel
Bouillon, Thomas W.
Glattfelder, Adolf H.
Zbinden, Alex M.
Publication Title: 
IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering

In ambulatory surgery, anesthetic drugs must be administered at a suitable rate to prevent adverse reactions after discharge from the hospital. To realize more appropriate anesthesia, we have developed a hypnosis control system, which administers propofol as an anesthetic drug to regulate the bispectral index (BIS), an electroencephalography (EEG)-derived index reflecting the hypnosis of a patient.

Author(s): 
Sawaguchi, Yoshihito
Furutani, Eiko
Shirakami, Gotaro
Araki, Mithuiko
Fukuda, Kazhuiko
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: In clinical anesthesia, robust surgical stress occasionally causes unintended light anesthesia during operation. To test the hypothesis that neural input condition could modify actions of general anesthetics as a result of presynaptic alteration in the central nervous system, we investigated the mechanisms by which the stimulus frequency modifies synaptic transmission of the rat hippocampus in the presence of general anesthetics.

Author(s): 
Hirota, Koki
Sasaki, Rika
Roth, Sheldon H.
Yamazaki, Mitsuaki
Publication Title: 
Masui. The Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology

General anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness covers a spectrum of different behavioral components, namely, (1) amnesia, (2) sedation/hypnosis, (3) analgesia, and (4) immobility. At the molecular and cellular level, anesthetic drugs have been shown to have effects on a wide rage of putative targets, such as ligand-gated ion channels (GABA, glycine, NMDA receptors), other ion channels (K+, Na+, Ca2+), and other intracellular functions. This mini-review summarizes recent topics in this research field focusing on NMDA and GABA receptors.

Author(s): 
Nishikawa, Koichi

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