Whether anesthetized patients register emotionally charged information remains controversial. We tested this possibility using subanesthetic concentrations of propofol or desflurane. Twenty-two volunteers (selected for hypnosis susceptibility) received propofol and desflurane (on separate occasions, and in a random order) at a concentration 1.5-2 times each individual's minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC)-awake (or equivalent for propofol).
The present study reports the results of the Israeli Defense Force clinic for dental phobic patients 14 months after its establishment. Thirty four soldiers (26 men, 8 women) attended the clinic, their ages ranged from 19 to 46 years. The patients were asked to complete Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), prior to their first and each subsequent visit to the clinic. A full dental examination, including radiographs, was carried out on each patient, and the DMFT was recorded.
Using the Stephens anaesthetic apparatus-which is a closed system with an in-circuit, nonprecision vaporizer-and isoflurane as anaesthetic gas, 18 rabbits were anaesthetized and showed sufficient hypnosis, analgesia, and muscle relaxation during bone surgery. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved with intravenous propofol and all rabbits were intubated afterwards.
We evaluated the effects of clonidine given orally on sevoflurane requirements for anaesthesia and hypnosis. Patients received either clonidine (5 micrograms.kg-1) by mouth (n = 21) 90 min before surgery or no premedication (n = 21) by random allocation. MAC was calculated using repeated tetanic nerve stimulation with end-tidal sevoflurane concentration increased or decreased by 0.3 vol.% depending on the previous response. MAC awake was calculated according to the response to verbal command.
We have studied 64 ASA I and II patients (aged 20-60 yr) to determine if nitrous oxide affects sevoflurane requirement for achieving 50% probability of no movement in response to verbal commands (MACawake). Patients were allocated randomly to one of four nitrous oxide concentration groups (0, 20, 40 and 60 vol.%). Patients in each group received sevoflurane at two different end-tidal concentrations according to a predetermined randomization table.
The effect of thiopental and sevoflurane (1 MAC, 2 MAC) on hemodynamics was assessed in a randomized study involving 38 adult patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored during the ECT procedure. After oxygenation, hypnosis was induced with a bolus injection of thiopenal (TPS) 4 mg.kg-1. Muscle relaxation was achieved by succinylcholine, 1 mg.kg-1 intravenously before ECT procedure.
Some patients are anxious about routine dental treatment; others, who may be able to cope with uncomplicated treatment, are worried by more unpleasant procedures such as minor oral surgery. Management approaches to anxiety vary according to its severity, the age of the patient, the degree of cooperation and the patient's medical history. Psychological approaches have been widely used and range from informal and common-sense methods to formal relaxation training and hypnosis. These techniques are safe, free from adverse effects and give the patient a sense of control.
We have studied the effect of nitrous oxide on bispectral index (BIS), calculated from a bipolar encephalogram. Inhalation of 70% nitrous oxide resulted in loss of consciousness in all healthy volunteers (n = 10) but no change in BIS. Brief inhalation up to 1.2% sevoflurane also resulted in loss of consciousness in volunteers (n = 5), but with sevoflurane, BIS decreased. BIS and the haemodynamic effects of adding nitrous oxide were also measured during coronary artery bypass surgery in patients (n = 10) receiving midazolam and fentanyl infusions.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies support techniques of intraoperative adjustment under general anesthesia, of eye muscle surgery, based upon the rest position (deviation) to improve surgical results. None, however, have examined the (a)symmetry, per se, of the rest position and its influence on surgical outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective/prospective patient chart data and photographs taken of patients under anesthesia were judged for (a)symmetry of deviation and correlated with (a)symmetry of surgery performed on 51 exotropic patients.
Oculocardial reflex (OCR) occurs particularly through manipulation of the medial rectus muscle and results in a bradycardic arrhythmia. In children the incidence is between 60 and 80%. After using sevoflurane in clinical practice, the absence or non-occurrence of this reflex was observed. The data of 180 healthy children aged between four and 14 years who had to undergo strabismus surgery under general anaesthesia were analysed: group I (n = 92), group II (n = 88). All children received standard premedication with midazolam, no anticholinergic drugs were administered.